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Organized Crime Investigation Reviewer

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organized crime investigation reviewer



Organized Crime Investigation Reviewer






Definition of Terms:

Al-Qaeda - is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama
bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam and several other militants in Peshawar,
Pakistan. If translated, al-qaeda means the base.

      Related: Organized Crime Investigation Review Questions

Alex Boncayao Brigade - is a Manila-based death squad that assassinated
dozens of people on the orders of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
It was formed in 1984. It formally split with the NPA in 1991.

Hashim Salamat - Chairman and founder of the MILF Moro Islamoc Liberation
Front. He passed away in 2003. MILF was formed in 1977.

Hukbalahap - It was an anti-Japanese guerrilla movement formed by the
peasant farmers of Central Luzon. In 1946, the organization rebelled
against the government.

Jihad - a war or struggle against unbelievers.

      Mujahid - a person engaged in jihad.

Nur Misuari - is a Moro revolutionary, politician, founder and former
leader of the Moro National Liberation Front.

Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas - the original communist party of the
Philippines. It was established on November 7, 1930.

      Related: Fire Technology Definition of Terms

Republican College Quezon City

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Republican College Quezon City






Republican College in Quezon City is a private non-sectarian
institution of higher learning.

      Related: Quezon City Criminology Schools
     
It was established in 1948 and officially accepted students in the
year 1949.

It is a school offering courses in Education, Business Administration
and Criminology.

Republican College Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board
examination is not a disappointment. Out of 91 examinees, 36 passed.

      Related: Criminology Review Center in Quezon City
     
How to keep in touch with the school
1. By Personal Visit
   42 18th Ave, Murphy, Cubao, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines
2. By Making a Call
   +63 2 912-5579 / +63 2 912-1286
3. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]

Experts and Interpreters to be Used in Explaining Writings

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Experts and Interpreters to be Used in Explaining Writings






When the characters in which an instrument is written are difficult
to be deciphered, or the language is not understood by the court,
the evidence of persons skilled in deciphering the characters, or
who understand the language, is admissible to declare the characters
or the meaning of the language.

Experts and interpreters to be used in explaining writings that are
difficult to be deciphered, or where the language is not understood
by the court.(Rule 130, Sec.16)

University of Manila Criminology

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University of Manila
College of Criminology





University of Manila in the Philippines is a private university. It
is located at 546 M. V.  de los Santos St.  Sampaloc,  Manila.

      Related: Criminology Schools in Manila
     
It was established in 1913. It is then known as Instituto De Manila.

University of Manila has the following College Departments:
1.  College of Business Administration
2.  College of Liberal Arts
3.  College of Education
4.  School of Foreign Service
5.  College of Engineering
6.  College of Law
7.  College of Criminology and Police Science

The College of Criminology and Police Science has the most number of
students.

The College of Criminology was opened on July 1, 1963.

In the October 2014 Criminology Licensure Examination, University of
Manila is among the top performing Criminology School.

University of Manila's Performance in the Criminology Board Examination.

October 2014 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 110
      No. of those who passed - 89
      No. of those who failed - 21
      Passing Percentage - 80.91%

April 2014 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 55
      No. of those who passed - 39
      No. of those who failed - 16
      Passing Percentage - 70.91%

October 2013 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 111
      No. of those who passed - 87
      No. of those who failed - 24
      Passing Percentage - 78.38%

      Jonathan Rivera Binarao 89.55% - 4th Placer

April 2013 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 55
      No. of those who passed - 41
      No. of those who failed - 14
      Passing Percentage - 74.55%

October 2012 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 84
      No. of those who passed - 62
      No. of those who failed - 22
      Passing Percentage - 73.81%

March 2012 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 47
      No. of those who passed - 32
      No. of those who failed - 15
      Passing Percentage - 68.09%

October 2011 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 45
      No. of those who passed - 33
      No. of those who failed - 12
      Passing Percentage - 73.33%

April 2011 Criminology Licensure Examination
      Number of Examinees - 55
      No. of those who passed - 34
      No. of those who failed - 21
      Passing Percentage - 61.82%
 
      Henry Jusay Gubalane Jr. 89.15% - 1st Placer
      Robert Jason Mediana Gatchalian 87.95% - 4th Placer

      Related: Criminology Schools in Quezon City
     

For those who is interested to take up Criminology as a field of
study, You may address your inquiry in any of the following ways:
1. By Personal Visit
   546 Dr. Mariano V. de losSantos street , Sampaloc,Manila,
   Philippines 2806
2. By Making a Call
   +63 2 735-5256 / +63 2 735-5084 / +63 2 735-5085 / +63 2 735-5094
3. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]


Written Words Control Printed

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Written Words Control Printed







When an instrument consists partly of written words and partly of a
printed form, and the two are inconsistent, the former controls the
latter.

Peculiar Signification of Terms

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Peculiar Signification of Terms






The terms of a writing are presumed to have been used in their
primary and general acceptation, but evidence is admissible to show
that they have been a local, technical, or otherwise peculiar
signification, and were so used and understood in the particular
instance, in which case the agreement must be construed accordingly.

When there is inconsistency between written words and printed words,
the former controls over the latter.(Rule 130, Sec.14)

Valid ID in the Philippines

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Valid ID in the Philippines


Valid ID's or Identification Card in the Philippines simply means the
acceptable ID's accepted by any government agency or private companies
as a way of ascertaining the identity of person.

      Related: BDO Acceptable ID

One of the most important ID's accepted by the Philippines in
obtaining a passport are the following:
1.  Digitized SSS ID
2.  Driver's License
3.  GSIS E-Card
4.  PRC ID
5.  IBP ID
6.  OWWA ID
7.  Digitized BIR ID
8.  Senior Citizen ID
9.  Old College ID
10. Alumni ID
11. Old Employment ID

Aside from any of the ID's above, applicants are required to to show
at least 3 of any of the following documents:
1.  Voter’s ID
2.  NSO Marriage Contract
3.  Land Title                              
4.  Seaman’s Book                  
5.  Elementary or High School Form 137 or Transcript of Records with
    readable dry seal
6.  Government Service Record
7.  NBI Clearance
8.  Police Clearance
9.  Barangay Clearance    
10. Old documents issued at least one year prior to date of application
    that show correct name, date and place of birth, picture and
    signature of applicant such as the following:
    a. NSO Birth Certificate of child / children
    b. SSS-E1 Form or Microfilmed Copy of SSS-E1 Form
    c. Income Tax Return
    d. Voter’s Certification, List of Voters and Voter’s Registration
       Record (for newly issued VRR, please attach receipt)
    e. School Yearbook
    f. Community Tax Certificate


Valid ID in the Philippines for Financial Transactions.

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas through the Monetary Board Regulates
the operation of all Philippine Banks.

Under Monetary Board Resolution No. 553 dated May 8, 2008 provides
that at least one of the following photo-bearing ID issued by an
official authority shall be acceptable  as valid identification cards
for all types of financial transactions by banks and non-banks financial
institutions under BSP supervision.

All Banks and Non-Banks financial institution must abide by this rules.

For those who would like to open a savings account or any kind of
account in any Philippine Banks and financial institutions regulated
by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the following ID's are accepted.

A.
1.  Passport
2.  Driver’s License
3.  Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) ID
4.  National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) Clearance
5.  Police Clearance
6.  Postal ID
7.  Voter’s ID
8.  Barangay Certification
9.  Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) e-Card
10. Social Security System (SSS) Card
11. Senior Citizen Card
12. Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) ID
13. OFW ID
14. Seaman’s Book
15. Alien Certification of Registration/Immigrant Certificate of
    Registration
16. Government Office and GOCC ID, e.g. Armed forces of the Philippines
    (AFP ID), Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF ID)
17. Certification from the National Council for the Welfare of Disabled
    Persons (NCWDP)
18. Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Certification
19. Integrated Bar of the Philippines ID
20. Company IDs Issued by private entities or institutions registered
    with or supervised or regulated either by the BSP, SEC OR IC.

B.
Students who are beneficiaries of REMITTANCES/FUND TRANSFERS who are
not yet of voting age may be allowed to present THE ORIGINAL AND SUBMIT
A CLEAR COPY OF ONE (1) VALID photo-bearing school ID duly signed by the
principal or head of the school.

C.
Banks and non-bank financial institutions under BSP supervision shall
require their clients to submit clear copy of the ONE (1) valid ID on
a one-time basis only, or at the commencement of a business relationship.
They shall require their clients to submit an updated photo and other
relevant information whenever the need for it arises.  

What is Affidavit of Desistance?

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affidavit of desistance


Affidavit of Desistance Meaning
It means the complainant states that he/she did not really intend to
institute the case and that he is no longer interested in testifying
or prosecuting.

      It is a ground for dismissing the case only if the prosecution
      can no longer prove the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable
      doubt without the testimony of the offended party.

      Related: Affidavit of Recantation

Recantation on the other hand means the witness who previously gave a
testimony subsequently declares that his/her statements were not true.


Effect of Affidavit of Desistance in Criminal Case
It does not bar the People from prosecuting the criminal action.

      But it does operate as a waiver of the right to pursue civil
      indemnity.

      Perez v. Hagonoy Rural Bank, Inc. 327 SCRA 588
      An offended party in a criminal case has sufficient personality
      to file a special civil action for certiorari, in  proper cases,
      even without the imprimatur of the  State. In so doing, the
      complainant should not bring  the action in the name of the
      People of the  Philippines. The action may be prosecuted in the
      name of the said complainant.

      Related: Some Actual Cases On Affidavit Of Desistance


Effect of Desistance By Offended Party in Criminal Case
It does not bar the People of the Philippines from prosecuting the
criminal action, but it operates as a waiver of the right to pursue
civil indemnity.

      An affidavit of desistance cannot justify dismissal of the
      complaint if made after (and not before) the institution of
      the criminal action.


Effect of Affidavit of Desistance in Civil Case
Where the criminal case was dismissed
before trial because the offended party executed an
affidavit of desistance, the civil action thereof is
similarly dismissed.


      Related: Sample Form Affidavit of Desistance


Bar Exam 2003
Before the arraignment for the crime of murder, the
private complainant executed an Affidavit of Desistance
stating that she was not sure if the accused was the man
who killed her husband. The public prosecutor filed a
Motion to Quash the Information on the ground that
with private complainant’s desistance, he did not have
evidence sufficient to convict the accused. On 02
January 2001, the court without further proceedings
granted the motion and provisionally dismissed the case.
The accused gave his express consent to the provisional
dismissal of the case. The offended party was notified of
the dismissal but she refused to give her consent.

Subsequently, the private complainant urged the public
prosecutor to refile the murder charge because the
accused failed to pay the consideration which he had
promised for the execution of the Affidavit of
Desistance. The public prosecutor obliged and refiled
the murder charge against the accused on 01 February
2003, the accused filed a Motion to Quash the
Information on the ground that the provisional
dismissal of the case had already become permanent.
(6%)

      a. Was the provisional dismissal of the case proper?
      b. Resolve the Motion to Quash.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a. The provisional dismissal of the case was proper because the
   accused gave his express consent thereto and the offended party
   was notified. It was not necessary for the offended party to give
   her consent thereto.(Sec.8 of Rule 117).

b. The motion to quash the information should be denied because,
   while the provisional dismissal had already become permanent, the
   prescriptive period for filing the murder charge had not
   prescribed. There was no double jeopardy because the first case
   was dismissed before the accused had pleaded to the charge.
   (Sec.7 of Rule 117).


Bar Exam 1993
Effect of Affidavit of Desistance in Rape Case
1. Ariel intimidated Rachel, a mental retarded, with a bolo into
   having sexual Intercourse with him. Rachel's mother immediately
   filed a complaint, supported by her sworn statement, before the
   City Prosecutor's Office. After the necessary preliminary
   investigation, an information was signed by the prosecutor but did
   not contain the signature of Rachel nor of her mother. Citing
   Art.344 of the RPC (prosecution of the crimes of rape), Ariel moves
   for the dismissal of the case. Resolve with reasons.

2. After the prosecution had rested its case, Ariel presented a sworn
   affidavit of desistance executed by Rachel and her mother stating
   that they are no longer interested in prosecuting the case and that
   they have pardoned Ariel. What effect would this affidavit of
   desistance have on the criminal and civil aspects of the case?
   Explain fully.

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1. The case should not be dismissed.
2. The affidavit of desistance will only amount to the condonation
   of civil liability but not criminal liability hence the case should
   still proceed.


Bar Exam 2000
Lolita was employed in a finance company. Because she could not
account for the funds entrusted to her, she was charged with estafa
and ordered arrested. In order to secure her release from jail, her
parents executed a promissory note to pay the finance company the
amount allegedly misappropriated by their daughter. The finance
company then executed an affidavit of desistance which led to the
withdrawal of the information against Lolita and her release from
jail. The parents failed to comply with their promissory note and
the finance company sued them for specific performance. Will the
action prosper or not? (3%)


SUGGESTED ANSWER:
The action will prosper. The promissory note executed by Lolita's
parents is valid and binding, the consideration being the
extinguishment of Lolita's civil liability and not the stifling
of the criminal prosecution.

ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
The action will not prosper because the consideration for the
promissory note was the non-prosecution of the criminal case for
estafa. This cannot be done anymore because the information has
already been filed in court and to do it is illegal. That the
consideration for the promissory note is the stifling of the
criminal prosecution is evident from the execution by the finance
company of the affidavit of desistance immediately after the
execution by Lolita's parents of the promissory note. The
consideration being illegal, the promissory note is invalid and
may not be enforced by court action.

Cambodian Police System

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cambodia police system



Cambodian Police System






Cambodia’s Ministry of Interior
It is in charge of the Cambodian National Police and other law
enforcement administrations, including police training units, the
judicial police, drug units, border police and prisons.

Cambodia Minister of Interior Organization
1. Minister of Interior
2. Six Secretaries of State
3. Four Under Secretaries of State

Cambodia is a member of Interpol since  April 1, 1956.

Cambodia joined Aseanapol in the year 2000.

Cambodia National Police Vision
Safer Cambodia Together

Cambodia National Police Mission
Working together to serve and protect the people.

      Related: Indonesian Police System

Cambodia National Police Values
1. Honesty
2. Integrity
3. Just and Fair within the law
4. Transparent and Responsible
5. Building relationship with communities
6. Respect the different needs of the people
7. Protecting rights, equality and  human dignity

Cambodia’s National Police Force is organized into six (6) central
Departments:
1. Security
2. Transport
3. Public order
4. Border
5. Administrative
6. Judicial

The Cambodian Police Chief is called Commissioner-General.

Commissioner-General
The head of the Cambodia National Police. He holds the rank of a
4 star General.

Cambodian Police History

1863-1883
Cambodia is under the French protectorate.

1884-1945
Before the establishment of the Cambodia National Police in 1945,
Khmer people with France did the policing to strengthen security and
social order.

1884
Phnom Penh police force was fully equipped with arms.

1885
Organization of police in Phnom Penh Port to improve the inspection
of ships coming through the port.

1896
Promulgation of the law on Sanitary Police, the law which was used
in France since 1822.

1897
Issuance of a regulation on Maritime Sanitary Police.

1905
Cambodian Maritime Police were established.

1912
River Police Brigade was established.

1925
Establishment of commune Patrols or Rural Police.

1931
1. Establishment of Provincial Patrols or Provincial Police.
2. Phnom Penh-Battambang Railway Police was established to suppress
   crime and protect individual property as well as maintain the
   order along the railway.

1945
The birth of the Cambodian National Police on May 16, 1945.
   A Decree made by Cambodia King Norodom Sihakmoni setting May 16,
   1945 as the birth of the Cambodian National Police. He made the
   decree on August 8, 2006.

1953
France transferred police institution to the Royal Government of
Cambodia on August 29, 1953 before gaining full Independence on
November 9, 1953.

Cambodian Police Academy
The Royal Krom dated October 6, 1959 established the Royal Police
Academy under the Ministry of National Security. One of the
responsibilities of the Royal Police Academy was to train new
recruits of high-ranking level, and provide a proficiency course to
the existing staff on laws, procedure and police professionalism so
that they could hold and perform their duties effectively.

   The Royal Police Academy was changed to the Royal Police School.
   Trainees from the school included inspectors and officers.

Cambodian Police Corruption
According to the Global Corruption Barometer 2013, surveyed households
perceive the police as the second most corrupt institution in Cambodia.
Police officers demanding payments for routine services are not uncommon
in Cambodia.
   According to a March 2010 news article by the Associated Press,
   corruption and discrimination in the police force and the judiciary
   pose a hindrance for rape victims to seek justice. However, an
   article from the Cambodia Daily from February 2014 points out that
   a task unit was created to monitor the activities of traffic police,
   thus curbing individual corruption.

Cambodian Police Ranking System (From Highest to Lowest Rank)
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Colonel
lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
1st Lieutenant
2nd Lieutenant
Chief Warrant Officer
Warrant Officer
Sergeant Major
First Sergeant
Staff Sergeant

Cambodian Police Salary
Police Staff Sergeant typically receives about 118 US Dollar a month
in salary. Aside from the monthly salary, the staff sergeant also
receives a monthly ration of rice.

     Related: Brunei Police System

Interpretation According To Circumstances

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Interpretation According To Circumstances






For the proper construction of an instrument, the circumstances under
which it was made, including the situation of the object thereof and
of the parties to it, may be shown, so that the judge may be placed
in the position of those whose language he is to interpret.

The circumstances under which an instrument was made, including the
situation of the subject thereof and of the parties to it, may be
shown, so that the judge may be placed in the position of those whose
language he is to interpret.(Rule 130,Sec.13)

Interpretation According To Intention

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Interpretation According To Intention
General and Particular Provisions





In the construction of an instrument, the intention of the parties
is to be pursued and when a general and a particular provisions are
inconsistent, the latter is paramount to the former. So a particular
intent will control a general one that is inconsistent with it.

Parties intention is to be pursued in construction of instrument.
In the inconsistency between general and particular provision, the
latter prevails. Particular intent controls general one inconsistent

with it.(Rule 130,Sec.12)

Top Medical Technologist School in the Philippines

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Top Medical Technologist School in the Philippines
March 2015





Top Performing Schools in the March 2015 Medical Technologist
Licensure Examination

No.1  University of San Agustin
           Passing Percentage is 94.37%
           67 Examinees Passed out of 71

No.2  Our Lady of Fatima University - Antipolo City
           Passing Percentage is 91.67%
           55 Examinees Passed out of 60

No.3  FEU (Far Eastern University) Manila
           Passing Percentage is 88.64%
           117 Examinees Passed out of 132

No.4  Lyceum of the Philippines University - Batangas
           Passing Percentage is 85.71%
           48 Examinees Passed out of 56

No.5  Centro Escolar University - Manila
           Passing Percentage is 83.53%
           71 Examinees Passed out of 85

No.6  Adventist University of the Philippines
           Passing Percentage is 100%
           All of its 49 Examinees Passed

No.7  University of Baguio - Baguio City
           Passing Percentage is 97.87%
           46 Examinees Passed out of 47

No.8  SLU (Saint Louis University) Baguio City
           Passing Percentage is 100%
           All of its 22 Examinees Passed

No.9  Saint Paul University - Tuguegarao
           Passing Percentage is 100%
           All of its 15 Examinees Passed

No.10 St. Scholastica's College - Tacloban
           Passing Percentage is 100%
           All of its 14 Examinees Passed

Medical Technologist Board Exam Topnotchers

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Medical Technologist Board Exam Topnotchers
March 2015 Licensure Examination





March 2015 Medical Technologist Board Exam Examinees Garnering The
Ten Highest Places

1st Placer  - Ace William Gopez Pasion 89.80%
                      Angeles University Foundation

2nd Placer  - John Alvin Ocampo Reyes 89.50%
                      SLU (Saint Louis University) - Baguio City

3rd Placer  - Teneisha Jhonne Morrow Brett 89.30%
                      SLU (Saint Louis University) - Baguio City

4th Placer  - Danderick Avanzado Ablir 89.10%
                      Silliman University

5th Placer  - John Michael Declarado Merin 89%
                      St. Scholastica's College - Tacloban

6th Placer  - Philip Patrick Petelo Lee 88.90%
                      Centro Escolar University - Makati

7th Placer  - Hazel Hope Manuel Acosta 88.60%
                      SLU (Saint Louis University) - Baguio City

8th Placer  - Anie Jan Kalbi Segovia 88.40%
                      Universidad De Zamboanga

9th Placer  - Ma Cindy Gucor Estoce 88%
                      Cebu Doctors University

                 - Clive Ivan Sumayod Mercado 88%
                     St. Scholastica's College - Tacloban

10th Placer - Ralph Kevin Gango Piocnacia 87.70%
                      Adventist University of the Philippines

Comparative Police System Review Questions 2

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comparative police system review questions



Comparative Police System Review Questions 2







1.  The First Aseanapol meeting of Chief of Police was held in
      A. Manila
      B. Kuala Lumpur
      C. Hanoi
      D. Jakarta

2.  The first formal meeting of the Chiefs of ASEAN Police was held on
      A. 1981
      B. 1982
      C. 1983
      D. 1984

3.  One of the following is not an original member of Aseanapol.
      A. Malaysia
      B. Singapore
      C. Thailand
      D. Cambodia

4.  Aseanapol has how many member countries?
      A. 8
      B. 9
      C. 10
      D. 11

5.  The Royal Brunei Police joined Aseanapol in what year?
      A. 1983
      B. 1984
      C. 1985
      D. 1986

6.  The Republic of Vietnam National Police joined Aseanapol in what year?
      A. 1996
      B. 1997
      C. 1998
      D. 1999

7.  The Laos General Department of Police joined Aseanapol in what year?
      A. 1996
      B. 1997
      C. 1998
      D. 1999

8.  The Myanmar Police Force joined Aseanapol in what year?
      A. 1996
      B. 1997
      C. 1998
      D. 1999

9.  The Cambodia National Police joined Aseanapol in what year?
      A. 1998
      B. 1999
      C. 2000
      D. 2001

10. The Executive Director of Aseanapol has a tenure of how many years?
      A. 1 year
      B. 2 years
      C. 3 years
      D. 4 years


Answer:
1.    A
2.    A
3.    D
4.    C
5.    B
6.    A
7.    C
8.    C
9.    C
10.  B

Comparative Police System Review Questions 1

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comparative police system review questions



Comparative Police System Review Questions 1







1.  Interpol as an organization became known as such in
      A. 1936
      B. 1946
      C. 1956
      D. 1966

2.  The Organization known simply as Interpol is the
      A. International Police Association
      B. Association of Chief of Police
      C. International Criminal Police Organization
      D. None of the Above

3.  The Present Interpol was officially created as the International
    Criminal Police Commission in what year?
      A. 1913
      B. 1923
      C. 1933
      D. 1943

4.  It is the world’s largest international police organization, with
    190 member countries.
      A. International Police Organization
      B. Aseanapol
      C. Interpol
      D. Borderpol

5.  It is the Interpol's supreme governing body. It meets annually to
    take all important decisions related to policy, resources, working
    methods, finances, activities and programmes.
      A. General Assembly
      B. Executive Committee
      C. General Secretariat
      D. National Central Bureaus

6.  Elected by the General Assembly, It is headed by the President of
    the Interpol. It provides guidance and direction to the Organization
    and oversees the implementation of decisions made at the annual
    General Assembly.
      A. General Assembly
      B. Executive Committee
      C. General Secretariat
      D. National Central Bureaus

7.  It is considered the lifeblood of INTERPOL because it contributes
    to the criminal databases and cooperating together on cross-border
    investigations, operations and arrests.
      A. General Assembly
      B. Executive Committee
      C. General Secretariat
      D. National Central Bureaus

8.  Interpol has how many member countries?
      A. 180
      B. 185
      C. 190
      D. 195

9.  Cambodia National Police was established in what year?
      A. 1945
      B. 1946
      C. 1947
      D. 1948

10. The Permanent seat of the Aseanapol secretariat is in what place?
      A. Manila
      B. Kuala Lumpur
      C. Hanoi
      D. Jakarta

   
Answer:
1.    C
2.    C
3.    B
4.    C
5.    A
6.    B
7.    D
8.    C
9.    A
10.  B

     
      Comparative Police System Review Questions 2

Instrument Construed To Give Effect To All Provisions

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Instrument Construed So As To Give
Effect To All Provisions






In the construction of an instrument where there are several
provisions or particulars, such a construction is, if possible, to
be adopted as will give effect to all.

As a general rule there is need to prove the authenticity of private
documents. Are there exceptions to this general rule ?
      SUGGESTED ANSWER:
      Yes. There may be no need to prove the a authenticity of
      private documents:
      a. When the document is ancient. (Sec. 21, Rule 132, ROC)
      b. When the execution and genuineness of the document is
         admitted by the adverse party.(Tria vs. Cruz, 14 Phil.551)
      c. When the genuineness and due execution of the document is
         immaterial.(Hicks vs. Coleman, 25 Cal.122)

Christian Hans Stoelting

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Christian Hans Stoelting founded the Stoelting Company. Stoelting 
Company is a leading product supplier of physiological, psychological 
and psycho-physiological machines and apparatus.

Chicago Laboratory Supply and Scale Company is the original name of
the Stoelting Company.

Stoelting Company was established in 1886 by Christian Hans Stoelting.
He is an American.

As early as the year 1895, He Supplied apparatus specifically tailored
to inent psychological laboratories.

Physiology had been Stoelting's first major market. The Company had 
earlier been known of scientific psychology in the 19th century.

At present, Stoelting Company is known to produce neuro-science,
any-maze (behavior tracking software), pyschological testing machines 
and polygraph instruments.

Christian Hans Stoelting first polygraph machine consists of a 
mechanical amplifier for detection of the pulse of the human heart 
and recording apparatus (Kymograph) to record the signal of said 
pulse.
   Two instruments to detect and record the human response to external 
influences to the human body, the principal instruments which comprise 
the forerunner of the modern Lie-Detector or Polygraph.

From 1903 to 1943 Stoelting was nearly unchallenged as the principal 
provider of the material culture of American psychology And at the 
St. Louis Universal Exposition of 1904 C H Stoelting Co was awarded 

Medals for Anthropometric Apparatus and Psychometric Apparatus awards. 



Interpretation of Documents

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Interpretation of a Writing According to its legal Meaning







The language of a writing is to be interpreted according to the legal
meaning it bears in the place of the execution unless the parties
intended otherwise.

Rules on Interpretation of Documents
1. Interpretation of a writing according to the legal meaning it
   bears in the place of execution, unless parties intended otherwise.
   (Rule 130, Sec.10)
2. Instrument construed so as to give effect to all provisions.
   (Rule 130,Sec.11)
3. Parties intention is to be pursued in construction of instrument.
   In the inconsistency between general and particular provision,
   the latter prevails. Particular intent controls general one
   inconsistent with it.(Rule 130, Sec.12)
4. The circumstances under which an instrument was made, including
   the situation of the subject thereof and of the parties to it,
   may be shown, so that the judge may be placed in the position of
   those whose language he is to interpret.(Rule 130,Sec.13)
5. The terms of a writing are presumed to have been used in their
   primary and general acceptation, but evidence is admissible to
   show that they have a local/technical/peculiar signification and
   were so used and understood in the particular instance, in which
   case the agreement must be construed accordingly.(Rule 130,Sec.14)
6. When there is inconsistency between written words and printed
   words, the former controls over the latter.(Rule 130,Sec.14)
7. Experts and interpreters to be used in explaining writings that
   are difficult to be deciphered, or where the language is not
   understood by the court.(Rule 130,Sec.16)
8. When the terms of an agreement have been intended in a different
   sense by the different parties to it, that sense is to prevail
   against either party in which he supposed the other understood
   it. And when different constructions of a provision are otherwise
   equally proper, that is to be taken which is the most favorable
   to the party in whose favor the provision is made.(Rule 130,Sec.17)
9. Construction in favor of natural right.(Rule 130,Sec.18)
10.Interpretation according to usage to determine instrument’s true
   character.(Rule 130,Sec.19)

Brunei Police System

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Brunei Police Logo



Brunei Police System








The Brunei Police force is called Polis Diraja Brunei or Royal Brunei
Police Force. It was established in 1921.

Royal Brunei Police Force is a member of the Interpol. It is a member
since September 4, 1984.

      Related: Comparative Police System Definition of Terms

It is also a proud member of Aseanapol. Aseanapol is the association
of the Chiefs of ASEAN Police. The first formal meeting of The Chiefs
of ASEAN Police was held in Manila in 1981. The 5 original members
are the following:
1. Indonesia
2. Malaysia
3. Philippines
4. Singapore
5. Thailand

Royal Brunei Police became a member of Aseanapol and joined the annual
conference in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1984.

The Sultan of Brunei serves as Prime Minister, Minister of Defense,
Minister of Finance and Chancellor of the national university.

The Sultan also serves as Superintendent General of the Royal Brunei
Police Force.

The Royal Brunei Police Force is organized into 7 Police Districts:
1. The Brunei
2. Belait
3. Muara/Marine
4. Tutong
5. Temburong
6. Jerudong
7. Berakas

These police districs are managed by four directors:
1. Director for Administration and Finance
2. Director for Operation
3. Director for Criminal Investigation and Intelligence
4. Director for Logistics.

The entire police operation is overseen by the following
1. Inspector General
2. Police Commissioner
3. Deputy Commissioner.

Brunei Police Number
1. Brunei Police District
   Central Police Station ​+673-2242334
   Berakas Police Station +673-2335333
   Sengkurong Police Station +673-2661334
   Kampong Ayer Police Station​ +673-2202114
   Muara Police Station +673-2772333
   Limau Manis Police Station +673-2683037
2. Tutong Police District
   Tutong Police Station +673-4221206
   Lamunin Police Station +673-4237374
3. Belait Police District
   Kuala Belait Police Station +673-3334324
   Sungai Liang Police Station +673-3230250
   Labi Police Station +673-3233233
   Seria Police Station​ +673-3222612
4. Temburong Police District
   Bangar Police Station +673-5221333

Brunei Police Salary
The entry salary of Police officers depends on the applicants
educational attainment. A Police Constable for example has a salary
of 580 Brunei Dollar plus allowances. A Cadet Inspector who
possesses ordinary degree has a salary of 2,110 to 2,180 Brunei
Dollar.

The minimum physical requirements for joining the Royal Brunei Police
Force is not less than 5'6" for male and not less than 5'4" for women.
For men, weight must not exceed 60 kilogram and for women, weight
must not exceed 55 kilogram.

Brunei Police Clearance/Permit
Common Activities that require a permit
a. Religious assembly
b. Festival procession
c. Religious procession
d. Public talks

   If one wishes to get a police certificate or police clearance,
   he/she should apply to the Commissioner of Police.

Brunei Police Headquarters
The Royal Brunei Police Force Headquarters is located in Jalan
Gadong BE1710 Brunei Darussalam

   You may keep in touch with the Brunei Police Headquaters by
   1. Making a Call
      Telephone: 673-2-423901
   2. Sending a Fax Message
      673-2-426290
   3. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry/Message
      [email protected]
   4. By Sending a Message thru its website contact page
      http://www.police.gov.bn

Brunei Police Rank
The highest ranking Brunei police officer is the Inspector General
of Police.
The 2nd highest ranking police officer is the Commissioner of police.
the 3rd highest ranking police officer is the Deputy Commissioner
of police.

Brunei Police Rank From the Highest Ranking officer to the Lowest
      Inspector General of Police
      Deputy Inspector General of Police
      Commissioner
      Deputy Commissioner
      Senior Assistant Commissioner
      Assistant Commissioner
      Senior Superintendent
      Superintendent
      Deputy Superintendent
      Chief Inspector
      Senior Inspector
      Inspector
      Probationary Inspector
      Cadet Inspector
      Sergeant Major
      Staff Sergeant
      Sergeant
      Corporal
      Lance Corporal

      Related: Indonesian Police Ranks


Royal Brunei Police Force Timeline

1906
The signing of the 1906 treaty between Brunei Darussalam and United
Kingdom laid down the foundation of new government with the formal
introduction of the British Resident. Among McArthur’s first acts
as British Resident was the introduction of the first officers to
police Brunei. The first group was made up of one Pathan and one
Sikh before a detachment of Sikhs was seconded from the Straits
Settlement government in Labuan. These seconded officers form Labuan
were eventually replaced by local Malays.

1909
Sergeant Crummy was appointed as the first Chief Police Officer of
Brunei Darussalam.

1917
The Brunei Police Force was founded under G McAfee who also continued
as Chief Police Officer for Labuan. Chief Inspector McAfee was
appointed as the Brunei CPO in 1917. These seconded officers from
Labuan were eventually replaced by local Malays.

1921
The Brunei Police was officially formed on January 1, 1921 immediately
after the 1920 Police Enactment was passed. The local force took over
all responsibilities from the Police Force of the Straits Settlement.

1950
In 1950 the Police headquarters was moved to Kuala Belait and the
CPO was answerable to the of CP of Sarawak.

1959
With the introduction of Brunei's own Constitution, this required
the sultanate to have its own Commissioner of Police and no longer
having to report to the CP Sarawak.

      Related: Cambodian Police System

Parol Evidence Rule

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Parol Evidence Rule
Evidence of Written Agreements







Parol Evidence:
Any evidence aliunde, whether oral or written, which is intended or
tends to vary or contradict a complete and enforceable agreement
embodied in a document.

General Rule:
When the terms of an agreement have been reduced to writing, it is to
be considered as containing all the terms agreed upon and there can
be, between the parties and their successors in interest, no evidence
of such terms other than the contents of the written agreement.

Exception:
A Party may present evidence to modify, explain or add to the terms
of the written agreement if he puts in issue in his pleading any of
the following:
   a. An intrinsic ambiguity, mistake or imperfection in the written
      agreement
   b. The failure of the written agreement to express the true intent
      and agreement of the parties thereto
   c. The validity of the written agreement
   d. The existence of other terms agreed to by the parties or their
      successors in interest after the execution of the written
      agreement

      The term “agreement” includes wills.

The parol evidence rule is based upon the consideration that when
the parties have reduced their agreement on a particular matter
into writing, all their previous and contemporaneous agreements on
the matter are merged therein, hence evidence of a prior or
contemporaneous verbal agreement is generally not admissible to
vary, contradict, or defeat the operation of a valid document.

Formerly, even if there was a written agreement on a particular
subject matter, the parol evidence rule did not apply to or bar
evidence of a collateral agreement between the same parties on the
same or related subject matter, in the ff instances:
1. Where the collateral agreement is not inconsistent with the
   terms of the written contract
2. Where the collateral agreement has not been integrated in and is
   independent of the written contract as where it is suppletory to
   the original contract
3. Where the collateral agreement is subsequent to or novatory of
   the written contract
4. Where the collateral agreement constitutes a condition precedent
   which determines whether the written contract may become operative
   or effective, but this exception shall not apply to a condition
   subsequent not stated in the agreement

Parol evidence rule does not apply, and may not properly be invoked
by either party to the litigation against the other, where at least
one party to the suit is not a party or privy to the written
instrument in question and does not base a claim or assert a right
originating in the instrument or the relation established thereby.

PNB vs. Seeto 1952
The Parol Evidence Rule does not apply to collateral agreements.

Pioneer Savings vs. CA
The rule does not apply to exclude evidence of conditions subsequent
in a deed of sale where such conditions were not stated in the
agreement.

Woodhouse vs. Halili 1953
It also does not apply if the issue revolves around fraud and false
representation since they are incidental to the execution and not
to the integration.

Lechugas vs. CA 1986
It does not apply either when 3rd parties are involved.

Ortañez v. CA 1997
The exceptions to the Parol Evidence Rule must be squarely put
in issue.

1997 Bar Examination
Give the reasons underlying the adoption of the following rules of
evidence:
a) Dead Man Rule
b) Parol Evidence Rule
c) Best Evidence Rule
d) The rule against the admission of illegally obtained extrajudicial
    confession
e) The rule against the admission of an offer of compromise in civil
    cases

    Suggested Answer:
    b) Parol Evidence Rule
       It is designed to give certainty to a transaction which has
       been reduced to writing, because written evidence is much
       more certain and accurate than that which rests on fleeting
       memory only.

2001 Bar Examination
Pedro filed a complaint against Lucio for the recovery of a sum of
money based on a promissory note executed by Lucio. In his complaint,
Pedro alleged that although the promissory note says that it is
payable within 120 days, the truth is that the note is payable
immediately after 90 days but that if Pedro is willing, he may, upon
request of Lucio give the latter up to 120 days to pay the note.
During the hearing, Pedro testified that the truth is that the
agreement between him and Lucio is for the latter to pay immediately
after ninety day’s time. Also, since the original note was with Lucio
and the latter would not surrender to Pedro the original note which
Lucio kept in a place about one day’s trip from where he received the
notice to produce the note and in spite of such notice to produce the
same within six hours from receipt of such notice, Lucio failed to do
so. Pedro presented a copy of the note which was executed at the same
time as the original and with identical contents.

      a) Over the objection of Lucio, will Pedro be allowed to
         testify as to the true agreement or contents of the
         promissory note? Why? (2%)

      b) Over the objection of Lucio, can Pedro present a copy of the
         promissory note and have it admitted as valid evidence in his
         favor? Why? (3%)

      Suggested Answers:
      a) Yes, because Pedro has alleged in his complaint that the
         promissory note does not express the true intent and
         agreement of the parties. This is an exception to the parol
         evidence rule.

      b) Yes, the copy in the possession of Pedro is a duplicate
         original and with identical contents. [Sec. 4(b) of Rule 130.
         Moreover, the failure of Lucio to produce the original of
         the note is excusable because he was not given reasonable
         notice, as requirement under the Rules before secondary
         evidence may be presented.

Top Mechanical Engineering Schools in the Philippines

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top mechanical engineering schools philippines



Top Mechanical Engineering Schools in the Philippines







The Best Mechanical Engineering Schools in the Philippines are the ff:

March 2015 Mechanical Engineer Licensure Examination

No.1  Batangas State University
          No. of Examinees - 84
          No. of those who passed - 84
          No. of those who failed - 0
          Passing Percentage - 100%

No.2  Mapua Institute of Technology
          No. of Examinees - 55
          No. of those who passed - 46
          No. of those who failed - 9
          Passing Percentage - 83.64%

No.3  Saint Louis University - Baguio City
          No. of Examinees - 34
          No. of those who passed - 33
          No. of those who failed - 1
          Passing Percentage - 97.06%

No.4  De La Salle University - Manila
          No. of Examinees - 29
          No. of those who passed - 28
          No. of those who failed - 1
          Passing Percentage - 96.55%

No.5  Technological Insitute of the Philippines - Manila
          No. of Examinees - 22
          No. of those who passed - 18
          No. of those who failed - 4
          Passing Percentage - 81.82%

No.6  University of San Carlos
          No. of Examinees - 18
          No. of those who passed - 18
          No. of those who failed - 0
          Passing Percentage - 100%

No.7  Malayan Colleges Laguna
          No. of Examinees - 14
          No. of those who passed - 14
          No. of those who failed - 0
          Passing Percentage - 100%


No.8  University of the Philippines (UP) - Diliman
          No. of Examinees - 13
          No. of those who passed - 13
          No. of those who failed - 0
          Passing Percentage - 100%

No.9  Mindanao State University - Gen. Santos City
          No. of Examinees - 13
          No. of those who passed - 12
          No. of those who failed - 1
          Passing Percentage - 92.31%

No.10 PUP - Taguig
          No. of Examinees - 7
          No. of those who passed - 7
          No. of those who failed - 0
          Passing Percentage - 100%



Certified Plant Mechanic Board Exam Result March 2015

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certified plant mechanic board exam result

The Result of the March 2015 Certified Plant Mechanic Board Exam has
been released.


      Read: September 2015 Certified Plant Mechanic Board Exam Result


Out of 28 Examinees, only 19 passed.


16 Schools participated in this examination.


The names of those who passed are the following:


ANTONIO, JHAYNARD CENTENO
BACIERTO, RONALD DADIZON
CLARIN, JAYSON RAMIREZ
DELA PAZ, EDWARD IMPERIAL
DELA PIEDRA, JEAN ASAS
ESCURO, KIM SORETA
ESPINOZA, OLIVER MALLARI
FLORES, LESLIE
GABARDA, FRANCIS DOMINIC HERMOSO
LLANES, RJ JACINTO III IRENO
MAGISTRADO, ALVIN OGAYON
MORALES, ZALDY TABENAS
NARRA, JELOUMER IBARRIENTOS
PONTANARES, ALDION BORCELE
ROMERO, REDENTOR HERMOSORA
SERVO, WILLIAM MIRALES
SIRON, JEBIE SALDIVAR
SUMPAY, ANTHONY CAVITANA
TONIZA, RYAN EDGARDO SALDIVAR 

Mechanical Engineer Board Exam Topnotchers

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mechanical engineer board exam topnotchers



Mechanical Engineer Board Exam Topnotchers







March 2015 Board Examination

1st Placer  - Joerge Ryan Bermudez Maramot 90.55%
              Batangas State University

2nd Placer  - Kent Joseph Garcia Carurucan 90.20%
              Batangas State University

3rd Placer  - Chernan Lepon Madugay 89.65%
              University of Cebu

4th Placer  - Michael Ray Sumalinog Wenceslao 89.45%
              University of San Carlos

5th Placer  - Andrew James Ang Tan Lee 89.05%
              De La Salle University - Manila

6th Placer  - Benjamin Fajardo De Guzman Jr. 88.85%
              Mapua Institute of Technology - Manila

7th Placer  - RJ Lawrence Co Tiu 88.75%
              Mapua Institute of Technology - Manila

8th Placer  - Jerome De Leon Lopena 88.45%
              Mapua Institute of Technology

9th Placer  - Richard Magnaye Endaya 88.15%
              Batangas State University

10th Placer - Shaeffer Glenn Gutierrez Bisa 88%
              Batangas State University 

Mechanical Engineer Board Exam Result March 2015

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mechanical engineer board exam result

The Result of the March 2015 Mechanical Engineer Board Examination
has been released.


Click here to view the complete names of those who passed.


739 Examinees out of 1,247 passed.


The No.1 Mechanical Engineering school is Batangas State University.
All of its 84 examinees passed.

 
    Related: Mechanical Engineer Board Exam Result Sept. 2015


Mapua Institute of Technology comes in 2nd. Out of its 55 examinees,
only 9 failed.


The Mechanical Engineer board exam 1st placer is Joerge Ryan Bermudez
Maramot of Batangas State University. He has a rating of 90.55%



127 Mechanical Engineering Shools participated in this examination.


Registration for the issuance of Professional Identification Card (ID)
and Certificate of Registration will start on March 18, 2015 but not
later than March 20, 2015. 

Criminology Schools in Manila

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criminology schools in manila



Criminology Schools in Manila







Emilio Aguinaldo College
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   1113-1117 San Marcelino St., cor. Gonzales St. 1000 Ermita, Manila
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 521-2710
c. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 60
         Number of those who passed - 45
         Number of those who failed - 15
         Passing Percentage - 75%



Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   Nagtahan, Sampaloc, 1008 Manila
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 716-5059

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 150
         Number of those who passed - 81
         Number of those who failed - 69
         Passing Percentage - 54%



Manila Law College
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   641 Sales Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila, Philippines
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 733-1601
c. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 7
         Number of those who passed - 1
         Number of those who failed - 6
         Passing Percentage - 14.29%



Manuel L. Quezon University
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By personal Visit
   1015 R. Hidalgo St. Quiapo, Manila 1001 Philippines
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 734-01-21 to 24 / +63 2 733 1067
c. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]
   [email protected]
   [email protected]

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 136
         Number of those who passed - 42
         Number of those who failed - 94
         Passing Percentage - 30.88%



Philippine College of Criminology (PCCr)
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   641 Sales St, Sta.Cruz, Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 733 1607
c. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 949
         Number of those who passed - 369
         Number of those who failed - 580
         Passing Percentage - 38.88%



Philippine College of Health and Sciences
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   1813 C.M. Recto Ave., Manila, Quiapo, Philippines
b. By Making a Call
    +63 2 734-0339 / 2 733-9480 / 734-0340

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 12
         Number of those who passed - 8
         Number of those who failed - 4
         Passing Percentage - 66.67%



Universidad De Manila
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   659-A Cecilia Muñoz Street, Sta.Cruz, Manila, Metro Manila
b. By Making a Call
   02 309-05-82 / 302-65-56 / 302-65-58 / 02 302-6551 to 52

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 138
         Number of those who passed - 125
         Number of those who failed - 13
         Passing Percentage - 90.58%


University of Manila
How to keep in touch with the school
a. By Personal Visit
   546 M V Delos Santos St., Sampaloc, Manila, 1006 Manila, Philippines
b. By Making a Call
   +63 2 735-5084 / 02 735-5256 / 09239844175 / 09771529389
c. By Sending an E-Mail Inquiry
   [email protected]

         Performance in the October 2014 Criminology Board Exam
         Number of Examinees - 110
         Number of those who passed - 89
         Number of those who failed - 21
         Passing Percentage - 80.91.29%


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2. Best Criminology School in Baguio City

Party Who Calls For Document Not Bound To Offer It

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Party Who Calls For Document Not Bound To Offer It








Production of papers or documents upon the trial, pursuant to a
notice duly served, does not make such papers or documents evidence.
It is not until the party who demanded the production of the papers
examine them and offers them in evidence that they assume the status
of evidentiary matter.

A party who calls for the production of a document and inspects it
is not obliged to offer it as evidence.(Rule 130,Sec.8)

Evidence Admissible When Original Documents Is A Public Record

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Evidence Admissible When Original
Documents Is A Public Record







Its contents may be proved by a certified copy issued by the public
officer in custody thereof.

Such document may be evidenced by an official publication thereof or
by a copy attested by the officer having the legal custody of the
record, and in case of an authorized public record of a private
writing, the same may also be proved by a copy thereof attested by
the legal keeper of the record.

Procedure for proving the contents of original in the custody of
a public officer:
1. When the original of a document
2. Is in the custody of a public officer or
3. Is recorded in a public office
4. Its contents may be proved
   a. By a certified copy
   b. Issued by the public officer
   c. In custody thereof. (Sec. 7  Rule 130)

When Original Document Is In Adverse Party’s Custody

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When Original Document Is In Adverse
Party’s Custody Or Control






If after reasonable notice is given to the adverse party to produce
the document and after satisfactory proof of the existence of the
document is made, he fails to produce the document, secondary
evidence may be presented.

Facts Which Must Be Shown By The Party Offering Secondary Evidence:
1. The adverse party’s custody or control of the original document
2. That reasonable notice was given to the adverse party who has the
   custody or control of the document
3. Satisfactory proof of its existence
4. Failure or refusal by the adverse party to produce it in court.

No particular form of notice is required, as long as it fairly
apprises the other party as to what papers are desired.

Even an oral demand in open court for production at a reasonable time
thereafter will suffice.

Notice must be given to the adverse party, or his attorney, even if
the document is in the actual possession of a third party.

Where receipt of the original of a letter is acknowledge on a carbon
copy thereof, there is no need for a notice to the other party to
produce the original of the latter.

It should be observed that the duplicate copy, if complete, is itself
an original copy and the only point in issue is the receipt of the
basic original copy thereof.

The justified refusal or failure of the adverse party to produce the
document does not give rise to the presumption of suppression of
evidence or create an unfavorable inference against him. It
authorizes the introduction of secondary evidence.

Under this rule, the production of the original document is procured
by mere notice to adverse party and the requirements for such notice
must be complied with as a condition precedent for the subsequent
introduction of secondary evidence by the proponent.

Where the nature of the action is in itself a notice, as where it is
for the recovery or annulment of documents wrongfully obtained or
withheld by the other party, no notice to produce said document is
required.

Indonesian Police System

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Indonesian Police System








Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia
Is the official police force of Indonesia. It is known as the
Indonesian National Police.

      Related: Royal Brunei Police Force

April 1999
The date that the police were formally separated from the military.

Markas Besar/Mabes 
The headquarters of the Indonesian Police. It is located in
Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta, Indonesia.

Veldpolitie
It means field police or colonial police during dutch occupation,
together with the military performed police duties.

1946
The Indonesian police was established.

Kapolri
Chief of the Indonesian Police.

Wakapolri
Second highest ranking officer in the Indonesian police.

Itwasum
The third highest ranking officer in the Indonesian police.

Indonesian Police Ranks

High-Ranking Officers
Police General / Jenderal Polisi - equivalent of PNP Director General
Police Commissioner General / Komisaris Jenderal Polisi - equivalent
      of PNP Deputy Director General
Police Inspector General / Inspektur Jenderal Polisi - equivalent
      of PNP Director
Police Brigadier General / Brigadir Jenderal Polisi - equivalent
      of PNP Chief Superintendent

Mid rank officers
Police Senior Commissioner / Komisaris Besar Polisi - equivalent
      of PNP Senior Superintendent
Police Adjunct Senior Commissioner / Ajun Komisaris Besar Polisi -
      equivalent of PNP Superintendent
Police Commissioner / Komisaris Polisi - equivalent of PNP Chief
      Inspector

Low Rank Officers
Police Adjunct Commissioner / Ajun Komisaris Polisi - equivalent of
      PNP Senior Inspector
First Police Inspector / Inspektur Polisi Satu (Iptu) - equivalent
      of PNP Inspector or First Lieutenant in the Philippine Army
Second Police Inspector / Inspektur Polisi Dua (Ipda) - equivalent of
      Second Lieutenant in the Philippine Army.

Note: There is only one grade of lieutenant in the Philippine National
Police and it is called Inspector.

Warrant officers
First Police Adjunct Inspector / Ajun Inspektur Polisi Satu (Aiptu)
- equivalent Chief Warrant Officer
Second Police Adjunct Inspector / Ajun Inspektur Polisi Dua (Aipda)
- equivalent Warrant Officer

Note: There are no warrant officers in the Philippine National Police.

Non-Commissioned Officers
Chief Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Kepala (Bripka) - equivalent
      Sergeant Major
Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi (Brigadir) - equivalent Chief
      Sergeant
First Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Satu (Briptu) - equivalent
      First Sergeant
Second Police Brigadier / Brigadir Polisi Dua (Bripda) - equivalent
      Second Sergeant Enlisted
Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi (Abrip) - equivalent
      Chief Corporal
First Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Satu (Abriptu)
      - equivalent Corporal
Second Police Brigadier Adjutant / Ajun Brigadir Polisi Dua (Abripda)
      - equivalent Lance Corporal
Chief Agent / Bhayangkara Kepala (Bharaka)
      - equivalent Chief Private
First Agent / Bhayangkara Satu (Bharatu) - equivalent Private
      First Class
Second Agent / Bhayangkara Dua (Bharada) - equivalent Private

Note: There are only 7 rank level in the Philippine National Police for
enlisted personnel. There are 10 rank level of enlisted personnel in the
Indonesian Police.