supreme court of the philippines logo

Instrument Construed So As To Give
Effect To All Provisions

In the construction of an instrument where there are several
provisions or particulars, such a construction is, if possible, to
be adopted as will give effect to all.

As a general rule there is need to prove the authenticity of private
documents. Are there exceptions to this general rule ?
      Yes. There may be no need to prove the a authenticity of
      private documents:
      a. When the document is ancient. (Sec. 21, Rule 132, ROC)
      b. When the execution and genuineness of the document is
         admitted by the adverse party.(Tria vs. Cruz, 14 Phil.551)
      c. When the genuineness and due execution of the document is
         immaterial.(Hicks vs. Coleman, 25 Cal.122)