Professional Regulation Commission

Professional Regulatory Board of Criminology

Syllabi/Tables of Specification - Summary of Topics 

The registered criminologist can perform the competencies under the following sub-topics:

1. Distinguish Nationalism and Patriotism: Elements, Types, and Characteristics of Nationalism and Patriotism.

2. Identify and demonstrate the Filipino Character, Values, and Cultures, Pre-colonial, and Post-colonial era.

3. Appraise the Values of Filipino Heritage, the Filipino Language, food, sports, and music.

4. Interpret the relevant provisions of the 1987 Philippine Constitutions, e.g. Preamble, Art. I, II, XIV, XV, and XVI.

5. Recognize and uphold the provisions of R.A. 8491 “Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines.” And the IRR.

Filipino Influences, Traits, and Characteristics

The most well-known traits and attitudes of the Filipino

Positive Traits

1. Hospitality 

Hospitality is a trait displayed by every Filipino, characterized by heart-warming generosity and friendliness exhibited to foreigners and locals alike. Filipinos are well-known for being hospitable. This is one of the most popular qualities of Filipinos. Most foreigners who have gone to the Philippines fell in love with the warm hospitality they have experienced while staying in the country. This is a kind of value system that existed a thousand years ago. The good thing is that the hospitality of the Filipinos is not only shown to the foreigners but to its fellow Filipinos as well.

Hospitality of Filipinos is shown in the following sample situations:

A. When a person visits a friend’s house, the host greets him or her with a very warm welcome. The host will immediately let their visitor sit down and will prepare a meal or snack plus drinks for the visitor. The host will insist that the friend will not leave the house with an empty stomach. A host will always make sure you have a great time visiting them.

B. People offer their guest room to visitors if they’re going to spend the night.

C. Meals offered to the guests are very special. A host always finds ways to prepare great-tasting food that her visitor wants to eat.

2. Respect 

This is often observed not just by younger people but also by people of all ages. In the Philippines, respect for one’s elders is a tradition.

A. Po and opo - these words are spoken by Filipinos when talking to elders, or in order to show respect to persons in authority. These Filipino words mean “yes” when answering or talking to the elders.

B. Pagmamano - another way of showing respect to the elders when greeting them. This is done by putting their elder’s hands on their forehands.

C. Filipinos also show respect at work by bowing to their employers.

3. Strong family ties and Religious 

Filipinos value their families so much that they tend to keep families intact through the generations. Families go to church and pray together because their religion is important and creates a strong bond, marking God as the center of their lives. Filipinos believe in only one God and the majority of the population are Catholics. It is a value system of the Filipinos to pray before eating, going to bed, before the start of meetings, conferences of programs, gatherings, and the like.

On weekends, most Filipino families make sure to have quality time together by watching television or eating a family meal, watching movies, or going to beaches or resorts.

4. Generosity and Helpfulness

Aside from being hospitable, Filipinos are also well-known for being generous. They share what they have with the people around them even when they only have little. These could be felt during birthdays, weddings, or fiesta(party). 

When visitors come to celebrate great tasting special foods are specially prepared for everyone. It is shared by friends, families, or even strangers. When you are in trouble, Filipinos cannot refuse to help you. They are always willing to assist you or lend a hand.

5. Strong Work Ethics  

Another good thing most Filipinos have is being hardworking people. They are always willing to work almost the whole day to provide for the needs of their families. Filipino farmers earn so little but they work harder with not much compensation.  

Aside from their regular work, Filipinos always find creative ways to look for other sources of income like creating a small business from their home where they sell food and other items for the convenience of their neighbors.

6. Loving and Caring  

Because of their generosity, hospitality, and religiosity, Filipinos are found to be the sweetest and most loving people in the world.  

It is expressed by both foreigners and Filipino women that most Filipinomen are so sweet and romantic when it comes to love, They will send their beloved flowers, bring her to a very romantic place, text her sweet quotes, and tell often how special she is to them. Filipino women are also romantic and very caring, which often makes some foreigners want to marry them. Women tend to prepare dinner for their husband comes home. They love, and value the relationship, always staying faithful to their husbands. They love deeply and sincerely.

Negative Traits of Filipinos

1. Fatalism ("Bahala Na" or “Come what may” attitude) 

When Filipinos are facing difficulties and shortcomings they have this attitude of leaving it up to God to sort things out. An attitude of "What GoesAround Comes Around." Filipinos have a tendency to surrender the future to luck. They have that strong confidence that everything will work out in their interest without doing anything. Filipinos often accept bad news or circumstances without trying to stop or change them. This can sometimes be helpful in adversity, but it can also keep us from finding ways out of situations. Also, constantly expecting the worst can get pretty depressing.

2. Mañana Habit (Procrastination) 

True-blooded Filipinos have the attitude of causing delays in accomplishing things or making transactions. When not interested or not in the mood, they wait or reserve until tomorrow or the next day to finish what they are doing or meet their transactions. However, there are some Filipinos nowadays who take their time in doing things or in making decisions promptly. There are some who are habitually late or not showing up at all. There are few Filipinos who are punctual for social meetings. In fact, it is not expected of them to arrive exactly on time, especially at a party. 

The "bahala na" attitude is the outcome of the "mañana habit when the tasks are left undone. This is usually shown and even expressed by people who do not care much about what lies ahead and just leave everything to fate.

3. Crab Mentality 

This is an attitude of some Filipinos where they tend to push each other down to clear the way for their own gain. Filipino people with this kind of mentality or attitude try their best to ruin each other, either by making issues against the other for him to turn out bad to the public or to the company or organization so that people will gradually put distance and lose their confidence and trust that eventually result to their replacement.

4. Hypocrisy 

This is a trait of the Filipino where criticisms of others' failure to live with the moral standards of the society are inevitable. In the Philippinesmorality is highly valued, and most of us try to live up to the standards set by the traditional society. However, as no one is perfect, many of us are not actually able to sustain these standards. The fear of being an outcast has forced a lot of people to live a double-standard life. To hide our failure in following a norm, we tend to be condemning those who are caught red-handed. A perfect example could be the criticisms faced by those who become pregnant outside of marriage. The sad fact behind this scenario is that some of these critics could have actually engaged in premarital sex only no proof is visible.

5. Ningas Cogon 

Most Filipinos are very good at the start when doing something. Nevertheless, after a few hours or days, that excitement to do or accomplish something is lost we and become too lazy to finish what were have started.

6. Tardiness (Filipino time) 

Only in the Philippines that we have the so-called "Filipino time" but not exactly refer to the Philippine standard time, but then again we use it to refer to the "tardiness" of the persons that we are wailing about or who keep on coming late to the set time schedule of events. Instead of being something to be proud of, Filipino time' brings a negative impression to our people. When the invitation says the program will start at 7pm, it is expected to begin at 9pm. This has not only caused conflicts in relationships, it also discourages others including foreigners from getting involved in supposedly productive activities as too much time can be wasted on waiting.

7. Gossiping 

Filipinos are fond of talking about others' business. It is not true that only women are into gossiping. Even men can also be nosy in other people's lives. Secrets are brought out; failures and flaws are emphasized; and relationships are destroyed. Worse, as gossip is passed around, it tends to be twisted until the final story becomes too far from the original, causing more damage.

8. Blaming 

Filipinos can sometimes be too self-righteous. When mistakes happen, we do not want to take the blame, we lack the humility to accept our failures, and instead, we point at others. This shows how irresponsible we are in our actions. This attitude destroys teamwork, and reliability becomes an issue.

9. Selfishness (being insensitive to others) 

Most Filipinos are insensitive to the needs and situations of others. This could be an outcome of having too many problems that Filipinos are facing and the tendency is to focus on their own needs first before others.

10. Disobedience to Simple Rules and Instructions 

Some Filipinos, despite the understanding of the purpose of laws and ordinances, are inability to observe and follow them. Consequently, -crime victimization and accident rates in the Philippines are constantly rising, poverty is getting more rampant, and lifestyle development is relaxed.

11. Attention Taker 

Filipinos are a fun and people-loving race. Thus, attracting attention is natural for them. Nevertheless, it is a different thing to be an "epal" or simply, be an attention grabber. 

Sometimes, in our desperate need to be the center of attention, we do things that are already embarrassing like butting in conversations as a know-it-all or by being scandalous. This habit is also common to our politicians. Instead of prioritizing their duty to give the best service to the people, they rather prioritize their thick faces 'to grab attention that will bring them more chance of winning in the next election. But thanks to our vigilant netizens, this kind of politician has more shame than fame.

12. Being onion-skinned or too sensitive 

Another habit or attitude that we need to change is our being too proud which usually results in thinking highly of ourselves, we have the tendency to put a wall around us and a signboard on our forehead "I must be respected.”Therefore, when someone makes a joke or not a positive comment about us we feel like we are not respected and we get offended. If all people in the country do not know how to accept constructive criticism, then we can never expect unity. 

13. Living beyond their means (social climbing) 

One of the reasons why a lot of Filipinos live in poverty is because of overspending. Since most people Want to live an elite lifestyle, many resort to social climbing or living beyond their means. Sometimes, some of us think that as long as we wear designer clothes and shoes, and send our children to the most expensive schools, it is alright to be swimming in credits and loans.

14.  Passivity (lack of leadership) 

Filipinos' lack of initiative for change is also one reason why our country does not progress. We keep on complaining about the government and other societal issues. However, we do not do anything about them. One of our excuses is the lack of faith that our small actions can bring change. However, the worst reason for this could be our lack of care for what is happening around us. Common Filipinos also lack courage and confidence. If you can notice it, in classrooms, churches, Or "conference rooms, most of us don't like to sit in the front seat.

15. Other Negative Traits 

Some Filipino women give birth at an early age *16 (Teenage Pregnancy). Some just don't mind their own business. Some have many bad habits, like drinking, smoking, Some poor teenagers engage in prostitution. There are many broken families. A lot of bad words to choose from which Filipino in can't avoid saying those. Most Filipinos tend to be with friends most of the time than to be with their Parents.



(excerpted from the Philippines-Australia Business Council)

1. Personalism 

Filipinos value interpersonal relationships. It is firmly believed that harmonious personal relationship is the key to successful endeavors. Amicable settlement of disputes is the primary means of restoring broken relationships and a face-to-face open forum is considered once conflict is recognized in an organization or the community.

2. Familialism 

Filipinos are family-oriented. Development programs and projects in the community are concentrated on the family. Decision on matters is centered on the welfare and best interest of the family rather than on the betterment and interest of some individuals. The mistakes committed by a family member affect the credibility of the immediate members of the family and relatives. 

3. Particularism

Displayed behavior by the individuals may it be good or bad is blamed on the family. It is based on the principle that home is the cradle of human personality and character that is, the product of goodness is always good and those who are molded in wickedness will always show off badness. Individuals strive to promote their own and their family’s interests over community interests.

On the other hand, knowing how to entertain people (marunong umasikaso ng kapwa) is important. Conformity to proper codes of conduct reaps the rewards of cooperation and assistance; non-conformity is punished by withdrawal of support.

Filipino Values Orientation 

Values Orientation - Is the approach that may influence Work or social relationships by persons relating to objects, events, and ideas.


The relational or face-to-face interactions and their resulting responsibilities are called interpersonal obligations. This is in relation to the value in Filipino cultural orientation, personalism.  Pakikiramay,pakikisama, bayanihan, and galang are the nature of interpersonalrelationships that are inherent to the pure-blooded Filipino people.

1. Pakikiramay- It is in the Filipino value of going out of the way to help, without being asked, i.e., unsolicited help.

2.  Pakikisama (Smooth Interpersonal Relations)- Regardless of whether someone's views are agreeable or not, Filipinos are capable of getting along with them. Camaraderie, trust, confidence, and loyalty are enhanced and developed by this Filipino

3. Bayanihan- As mentioned in the preceding topics, Filipinos are able to render services and are generous enough to extend help without compensation. Somebody can request help in time of need from those to whom it is extended

4. Galang (respect)- Filipinos are basically oriented to revere the opinions of elders, peers, or those in authority, during important discussions during social; encounters. Verbal clashes or any sign of extreme familiarity in public meetings is a sign of disrespect to elders or persons in authority.

R.A. No. 8491 - This act shall be known as the “Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines.”

Philippine Symbols That Promotes A Sense Of Nationalism

Symbols are very, very important to people in quite a lot of countries, especially if these symbols are related to a sense of nationalism. The officially recognized national symbols of the Philippines are:

1. The Philippine Flag with red, white, and blue colors and a yellow sun representing the provinces of the country.

2. Coat of Arms of the Philippines also features the yellow sun with 8 rays depicting the original provinces in the Philippines.

3. Lupang Hinirang (Chosen Land) - The Philippine National Anthem.

4, Sampaguita  (Jasminum Sambac) - The national flower of the Philippines; symbolizing purity and simplicity, the flower is small, white, and pleasantly fragrant.

5. Narra (Pterocarpus) - The national tree of the Philippines; also known as Rosewood, it is strong, sturdy, and durable - a common rainforest tree.

6. Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi)- The Philippines national bird. It is acknowledged to be severely endangered. The   Philippine Eagle is protected by law in the country and there is extreme punishment for any harm done to them.

7. Dr. Jose P. Rizal - The National Hero of the Philippines.

8. Cariñosa or Tinikling - The Philippine national dance. Gracefulness is symbolized by this dance.

9. Carabao  (water buffalo) - The Philippine national animal. It symbolizes industriousness and hard work due to its use on many farms in the country.

10. Bangus  (milkfish) - The   Philippines'  national fish. It symbolizes versatility, because of the many ways in which it can be cooked.

11. Mango - The national fruit. Philippine mangoes are considered the sweetest fruit in the world.

12. Barong - The Philippine national costume or fang style for men - (not tucked shirt of thin fabric displaying Chinese, Indo-Malayan tropical, and Hindu influences) for Women: Baro't Saya skirt and blouse with no collar.

13. "Bayan Ko" and "Pilipinas Kong Mahal" are the Philippine national songs.

14. Arnis - The Philippine national sport (stick fighting.)

15. Anahaw (Livistona rotundifolia) - The Philippine national plant. This plant is often used as a hat, umbrella, or fan symbolizing Filipino resourcefulness.

16. Nipa Hut - The Philippine national house: typically a small bamboo house with a thatched roof.

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