introduction to criminology
Introduction To Criminology

CRIMINOLOGY

- according to Edwin H. Sutherland, “Criminology is the entire body of knowledge regarding crime as a  social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the process of making of laws, of breaking oflaws, and the society’s reaction    towards the breaking of laws.”

- Criminology is a body of knowledge regarding crimes, criminals and the efforts of society to preventand repress them.

- the scientific study of the causes of crime in relation to man and society who set and define rulesand regulations for himself and others to govern.

Origin of the word “Criminology”

Etymologically, the term criminology came from the Latin word “crimen” meaning crime and Greek word “Logos” which means “to study”. In 1885, Rafael Garofalo, an Italian Law Professor coined the term criminologia.In 1889, Paul Topinard, French Anthropologist, used the term criminology in French criminologie for the first time.

Principal Divisions of Criminology
1. Etiology of Crimes – the scientific analysis of the causes of crimes and the criminal behavior.
2. Sociology of Law – refers to the investigation of the nature of criminal law and its administration
3. Penology – the study of the control of crimes and the rehabilitation of offender.

Is criminology a science?

According to George Wilker, criminology cannot become a science because it has not yet acquireduniversal validity. Edwin H. Sutherland, the Dean of Modern Criminology,  hoped that it will become a sciencein the future  since  the  causes of crimes are  almost the same which   may  be biological, environmental  orcombination of the two.

Nature of Criminology
1. It is applied science because criminology as a body of knowledge has already established universally accepted principles and concepts and these are used by other field of study. (INSTRUMENTATION)
2. It is a social science because it studies crime as a social phenomenon. Crime is a social problem whichhas a great impact to society.
3. It is dynamic because the concepts of criminology and their applications adapt to the changing time.
4. It is nationalistic because the study of criminology takes into consideration the history, the culture andthe social norms and the laws of the country. Each country has its own set of laws and crimes aredefined by the laws of the country.

Scope in the Study of Criminology
1. Study of the origin and development of criminal law
2. Study of the causes of crimes and development of criminals
3. Study of the other sciences that examine criminal behavior using scientific methods such as: 

criminal demography – the study of the relationship between criminality and population. 
criminal epidiomology – the study of the relationship between environment and criminality.
criminal ecology – the study of criminality in relation to the spatial distribution in a community. 
criminal physical anthropology – the study of criminality in relation to physical constitution of men.
criminal psychology – the study of human behavior in relation to criminality.
criminal psychiatry – the study of human mind in relation to criminality.
victimology – the study of the role of the victim in the commission of a crime.

CRIMES AND CRIMINALS

CRIME
- refers to an act committed or omitted in violation of public law (Phil. Law Dictionary).
- It also refers to an act committed or  omitted  in violation of a public law forbidding or commanding it.

CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES 

LEGAL CLASSIFICATIONS:

1. According to law violated
a. Felony – an act or omission punishable by law which is committed by means of dolo (deceit) or culpa (fault)and punishable under the Revised Penal Code
b. Offense – an act or omission in violation of a special law
c. Infraction – an act or omission in violation of a city or municipal ordinance

2. According to the manner of committing crime:
a. By means of dolo or deceit – if the crime is committed with deliberate intent. Thus, it is calledintentional felonies.
- freedom or voluntariness
- intelligence
- intent
b. By means of culpa or fault
- felonies committed by means of culpa (fault)
- the act  or  omission  of the offender  is not malicious and the injury caused by the offender is unintentional, it being the simply the incident of another act performed without malice
* lack of foresight
* lack of skill
* negligence 
* imprudence

3. According to the stages in the commission:
a. Attempted – the crime is attempted when the offender commences the commission of a felony directly by over acts, and does not perform all the acts of execution which should produce the felony by reason of some cause or accident other than this own spontaneous desistance.
b. Frustrated - when the offender performs all the acts of execution which would produce the felony as a  consequence but   which, nevertheless do not produce it by reason of causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.
c. Consummated  - when all the elements necessary for its accomplishment and execution are present.

4. According to plurality:
a. Simple Crime – is a single act constituting only one offense.
b. Complex  Crime  –  single  act  constituting  two  or  more  grave  felonies  or  an  is  a  necessarymeans for committing the other.

Two (2) Kinds of Complex Crime:
1. compound crime (delito compuesto)
2. complex crime proper (delito complejo)

5. According to gravity:
a. Grave felonies - are those to which the law attaches the capital punishment or penalties which inany of their period are afflictive.
b. Less grave felonies - are those which the law punishes with penalties which in their maximum period are correctional.
c. Light felonies - are infraction of laws for the commission of which the penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos or both is provided.

6. According to the nature of the act:
a. Crimes mala in se – are acts that are inherently evil. 
Examples are murder, robbery, etc.
b. Crimes  mala  prohibita  –  are acts which are prohibited only because there are laws forbidding such acts. Examples are Illegal Possession of firearms, Traffic Violations, etc.

CRIMINOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF CRIME

1. According to the result of the crime:
a. Acquisitive crime – if the offender acquired or gained something by committing the crime. Examples are robbery, estafa, bribery, etc.
b. Destructive  crime  –  if  the  crime  resulted  in  destruction,  damage  or  even  death.  Examples  arearson, murder and homicide, damage to property, etc.

2. According to the time or period of commission:
a. Seasonal crimes – are crimes that happen only during a particular season or period of the year. Examples are violation of election law, tax law violations, etc.
b. Situational crimes – are crimes committed when the situation is conducive to the commission ofthe crime and there is an opportunity to commit it. Examples are pickpocketing, theft, etc.

3. According to the length of time of the commission:a. Instant crimes – are those crimes that can be committed in a very short time. Example: theftb. Episoidal crimes –  are crimes committed through series of acts or episodes and in much longertime. Example: serious illegal detention

4. According to place or location:
a. Static crimes – are committed only in one place. examples are theft and robbery
b. Continuing crimes – are crimes that take place in more than one place or several places. examples: abduction, kidnapping, etc.

5. According to the use of mental faculties:
a. Rational crimes – when the offender is capable of knowing what he is doing and understanding the consequences of his actions.
b. Irrational  Crimes – when the offender suffers from any form of mental disorders, insanity or abnormality. Thus, the offender doesn’t know what he is doing.

6. According to the type of offender:
a. White Collar Crimes – crimes committed by those persons belonging to the upper socio-economic status or in the course of his occupational activities.
b. Blue Collar Crimes – are those crimes committed by ordinary criminals as a means of livelihood.

CRIMINAL
-in the legal sense, a criminal is any person who has been found to have committed a wrongful act in the course of the standard judicial process; there must be a final verdict of his guilt
-in the criminological sense, a person is already considered a criminal the moment he committed a crime.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF CRIMINALS

1. According to etiology
a. Acute criminal – is a person who committed crime as a result of reacting to a situation or during amoment of anger or burst of feeling.
b. Chronic criminal – is one who committed a crime with intent or deliberated thinking.
1. Neurotic criminal – is one who has mental disorder.2. Normal criminal – a person who commits crimes because he looks up to, idolizes peoplewho are criminals.

2. According to the type of offender:
a. Ordinary criminal – a criminal who engages in crimes which do not require specialized or technical skill.
b. Organized criminal – one who possesses some skills and know-how which enable him to commit crimes and evade detection.
c. Professional criminal – highly skilled criminals who are engaged in large-scale criminal activities and usually operate in groups.

3. According to criminal activities:
a. Professional criminal – a criminal who earns his living through criminal activities.
b. Situational criminal – a person who got involved in a criminal act because the situation presented itself.
c. Habitual criminal – one who repeatedly commits criminal acts for different reasons.
d. Accidental criminal – a person who accidentally violated the law due to some circumstances.

CRIMINAL LAW
– is that branch of public law that defines crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their punishment.

Revised Penal Code or Act No. 3815
– book that contains the Philippine Criminal Law and different special laws and decrees that are penal in nature. It is called as RPC because the old penal code which took effect in the country on July 14,1887 and was in force until Dec. 31, 1931, was revised by the Committee created by Administrative Order No.94 of the Department of Justice, dated Oct. 18, 1927, composed of Anacleto Diaz as Chairman, Alex Reyes and Mariano de Joya as members. The RPC was approved on Dec. 8, 1930, and took effect on January 1,1932.

Principal Parts of the RPC
It is composed of two books; Book One which is composed of  Articles  1-113  and Book Two covering Articles 114-367.
a. Articles 1-20 – principles affecting criminal liability
b. Articles 21-113 – penalties including criminal and civil liability
c. Articles 114-367 – felonies

Characteristics of the RPC

1. Generality –  the law is applicable to all persons within the territory irrespective of sex, race, nationality, or civil status except:
a. Head of state
b. Foreign diplomats, ambassadors, who are duly accredited to our country
c. Foreign troops permitted to march within the territory

2. Territoriality  -  the  RPC is applicable to felonies committed within the Philippine territorial jurisdiction.
a. Philippine archipelago – all the islands that comprise the Philippines
b. Atmosphere water – all bodies of water that connect all the islands such as bays, rivers, and streams
c. Maritime zone – the twelve (12) Nautical Mile limit beyond our shore measured at low tide.

EXCEPTIONS TO THE TERRITORIAL CHARACTER OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE:
The  Revised  Penal  Code  shall  be  applicable to  all  cases  committed  outside  the Philippine  territorial jurisdiction under the following circumstances:
a) should commit an offense while on Philippine ship or airship;
b) should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippine Island or obligations and securities issued by the government of the Philippines;
c) while being a public officer or employee, should commit an offense in the exercise of their functions
d) should commit any of the crimes against national security and the law of nation.

3. Prospectivity - the provisions of the RPC cannot be applied if the act is not yet punishable at the time the felony was committed. However, it may have a retroactive effect if it is favorable to the accused who is not a habitual delinquent.

4. It is specific and definite. Criminal law must give a strict definition of a specific act that constitutes an offense.  Where there is doubt as to whether a definition embodied in the Revised Penal Code applies to the accused or not, the judge is obligated to decide the case in favor of the accused. Criminal law must be construed liberally in favor of the accused and strictly against the state.

5. It is uniform in application. An act described as a crime is a crime no matter who committed it, wherever committed in the Philippines, and whenever committed.  No exceptions must be made as to the criminal liability.  The definition of crimes together with the corresponding punishment must be uniformly construed, although there may be a difference in the enforcement of a given specific provision of the penal law.

6. There must be a penal sanction or punishment. Penal sanction is the most essential part of the definition of the crime. If there is no penalty for a prohibited act, its enforcement will almost be impossible. The penalty acts as a deterrence and as a measure of self-defense of the state to protect society from the threat and wrong inflicted by the criminal.


SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN CRIMINOLOGY

School of Thought – refers to a group of beliefs or ideas that support a specific theory.

Theory – a set of statements devised to explain behavior, events, or phenomenon, especially one that has been repeatedly tested and widely accepted.

1. DEMONOLOGICAL  THEORY  - asserts that a  person commits wrongful acts due to the fact that he was possessed by demons.

2. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY
The classical school of criminology grew out of a reaction against the barbaric system of law, punishment, and justice that existed. There was no real system of criminal justice in Europe at that time.   Some crimes were specified, some were not. Judges had discretionary power to convict a person for an act not even legally defined as criminal.

This school of thought is based on the assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes after weighing the consequences of their actions.  According to classical criminologists, individuals have free will. They can choose legal or illegal means to get what they want, fear of punishment can deter them from committing crime and society can control behavior by making the pain of punishment greater than the pleasure of the criminal gains.

This theory, however, does not give any distinction between an adult and a minor or a mentally handicapped in as far as free will is concerned. The founders of the classical school of criminology are Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham.

Cesare Beccaria (Cesare Bonesana Marchese di Beccaria) (1738-1794)
-best known for his essay, “On Crimes and Punishment” which presented key ideas on the abolition of torture as a legitimate means of extracting confession.
-His book contains almost all modern penal reforms but its greatest contribution was the foundation it laid for subsequent changes in criminal legislation
- his book was influential in the reforms of the penal code in France, Russia, and Prussia and it influenced the first ten amendments to the US Constitution

Beccaria believed that:
a. people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
b. Crime provides some pleasure to the criminal.
c. To deter crime, he believed that one must administer pain in an appropriate amount to counterbalance the pleasure obtained from crime.
d. Famous for saying “ Let the punishment fit the crime"


Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
- his contribution to the classical school of criminology is the concept of utilitarianism and the felicific
calculus.
- proposed  “Utilitarian Hedonism”  which explains that a person always acts in such a way to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
- founded the concept of UTILITARIANISM – assumes that all our actions are calculated in accordance with their likelihood of bringing pleasure and pain.
- devised the pseudo-mathematical formula called “felicific calculus” which states that individuals are human calculators who put all the factors into an equation in order to decide whether a particular crime is worth committing or not
- he reasoned that in order to deter individuals from committing crimes, the punishment, or pain, must be greater than the satisfaction, or pleasure, he would gain from committing the crime.

Utilitarianism – is a philosophy that argues that what is right is the one that would cause the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
- others refer to it as the greatest happiness principle or the principle of utility.
- from this principle, Bentham formulated the “felicific calculus”. 

Felicific Calculus or the pleasure-and-pain principle – is a theory that proposes that individuals calculate the consequences of their actions by weighing the pleasure (gain) and the pain (suffering) they would derive from doing the action.

3. NEOCLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY
This theory modified the doctrine of free will by stating that the free will of men may be affected by other factors and crime is committed due to some compelling reasons that prevail. These causes are pathology, incompetence, insanity, or any condition that will make it impossible for the individual to exercise free will entirely. In the study of legal provisions, this is termed as either mitigating or exempting circumstances.

4. POSITIVIST SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY
- The term “positivism”, refers to a method of analysis based on the collection of observable scientific facts.
- Positivists believe that causes of behavior can be measured and observed.
- It demands facts and scientific proof, thus, changing the study of crimes and criminals into a scientific approach.
- Positive theorists were the first to claim the importance of looking at individual differences among criminals. These theorists who concentrated on the individual structures of a person, stated that people are passive and controlled, whose behaviors are imposed upon them by biological and environmental factors.


August Comte
- was a French philosopher and sociologist and is believed to be the one who reinvented the French term sociologie.
- he was recognized as the “Father of Sociology and Positivism”.

THE (UN) HOLY THREE (3) OF CRIMINOLOGY
1. Cesare Lombroso
2. Enricco Ferri
3. Raffaelle Garofalo

Cesare Lombroso
- recognized as the “Father of Modern and Empirical Criminology” due to his application of modern scientific methods to trace criminal behavior, however, most of his ideas are now discredited
- known for the concept of atavistic stigmata (the physical features of creatures at an earlier stage of development).
- he claimed that criminals are distinguishable from non-criminals due to the presence of atavistic stigmata and crimes committed by those who are born with certain recognizable heredity traits.
- according to his theory, criminals are usually in possession of huge jaws and strong canine teeth, the arm span of criminals is often greater than their height, just like that of apes who use their forearms to push themselves along the ground.
-other physical stigmata include deviation in head size and shape, asymmetry of the face, excessive dimensions of the jaw   and cheekbones,  eye  defects and peculiarities, ears of unusual size, nose twisted, upturned or flattened in thieves, or aquiline or beaklike in murderers, fleshy lips, swollen and protruding, and pouches in the cheek like those of animal’s toes

- Lombroso’s work supported the idea that the criminal was a biologically and physically inferior person

- according to him, there are three (3) classes of criminals:
a. born criminals – individuals with at least five (5) atavistic stigmata   
b. insane criminals – those who became criminals because of some brain defect that affected their ability to understand and differentiate what is right from what is wrong.
c. criminaloids - those with the makeup of an ambiguous group that includes habitual criminals, criminals by passion, and other diverse types.

Enricco Ferri
- he focused his study on the influences of psychological factors and sociological factors such as economics, on crimes.
- He believed that criminals could not be held morally responsible because they did not choose to commit crimes, but rather were driven to commit crimes by conditions in their lives.

Raffaelle Garofallo
- He treated the roots of the criminals’ behavior not to physical features but to their psychological equivalent, which he referred to as moral anomalies.
- He rejected the doctrine of free will.
- Classified criminals as Murderers, Violent Criminals, Deficient Criminals, and Lascivious Criminal.


Introduction To Criminology Reviewer (Definition of Terms and Terminologies)


Abrahamsen - In his Crime and Human Mind, 1945, explained the causes of crime by his formula "Criminal Behavior equals criminalistic tendencies plus crime inducing situation divided by the persons
mental or emotional resistance to temptation.

Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874) - was a Belgian mathematician, astronomer, and statistician, he helped to establish the cartographic school and positivist schools of criminology which made extensive use of statistical techniques. Through statistical analysis, Quetelet gained insight into the relationships between crime and other social factors. Among his findings were strong relationships between age and crime, as well as gender and crime.

Alienist - a doctor specializing in the treatment of mental illness. An expert witness in a sanity trial.

Amnesia - a partial or total loss of memory. Origin late 18th century: from Greek amn─ôsia ‘forgetfulness.’

Andrew Von Hirsch -  developed the notion of a just desert.

Just Desert - has five guidelines; 
1. Treat legal punishment as a desert; 
2. avoid doing harm; 
3. sentence delinquency, not the delinquent; 
4. interfere parsimoniously;
5. restrain efforts to prevent crime; modern-day utilitarianism.

Anger - is an emotion characterized by antagonism toward someone or something you feel has deliberately done you wrong.

Anomie - Breakdown of social order as a result of the loss of order in a society.

Anthropology - is the study of humans, past and present.

Atavism - The return of a trait or recurrence of previous behavior after a period of absence.

Atavistic Anomaly - Physical characteristics that distinguish born criminals from the general population and are throwbacks to animals or primitive people.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Psychological disorder which a child shows developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, hyperactivity, and lack of attention.

August Aichhorn - is considered to be one of the founders of psychoanalytic education. He is remembered for his work with juvenile delinquents and disadvantaged youth. He believed that imposed discipline and suppression which were practiced in traditional reformatories yielded few
positive results.

Autophobia - is the specific phobia of isolation; a morbid fear of being egotistical, or a dread of being alone or isolated.

Monophobia - is an acute fear of being alone and having to cope without a specific person, or perhaps any person, in close proximity.

Biometrics - is a technique for the identification of people that uses body characteristics or behavioral traits and is increasingly being used instead of or in conjunction with other forms of identification based on something you have (e.g. ID card) or something you know (e.g. password or PIN).

Born criminal - is a term which is according to Lombroso, a person born with features resembling an earlier, more primitive form of human life, destined to become a criminal. Born criminals are described as individuals who are born with a genetic predilection toward criminality.

Bromberg - (Crime and Mind 1948) criminality is the result of emotional immaturity. A person is emotionally mature when he has learned to control his emotion effectively and live at peace
with himself and in harmony with the standard of conduct which are acceptable to society. An emotionally immature person rebels against rules and regulations tends to engage in unusual activities, and experiences a feeling of guilt due to an inferiority complex.

Brotherhood - an association, society, or community of people linked by a common interest, religion, or trade.

Cesare Beccaria - founders of the classical school of thought within criminology.

Cesare Lombroso - an Italian criminologist, and founder of the Italian school of criminology, formulated the theory of anthropological criminology, which essentially states that criminality was inherited and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic.

Charles Darwin - wrote Origin of Species in 1859, kicked off the scientific revolution, father of evolution.

Charles Goring - author of the influential work The English Convict: A Statistical Study.

The English Convict: A Statistical Study - It was first published in 1913 and set out to establish whether there were any significant physical or mental abnormalities among the criminal classes that set them apart from ordinary men, as suggested by Cesare Lombroso. He ultimately concluded that "the physical and mental constitution of both criminal and law-abiding persons, of the same age, stature, class, and intelligence, are identical. There is no such thing as
 an anthropological criminal type."

Chicago School - Group of urban sociologists who studied the relationship between environmental conditions and crime.

Classical School - based on free will; able to make decisions in a logical way; assumes people are hedonistic.

Conflict Of Culture Theory - by Thorstein Sellin. It was emphasized in this theory that the multiplicity of conflicting cultures is the principal source of social disorganization. The high crime and
delinquency rates of certain ethnic or racial groups is explained by their exposure to diverse and incongruent standards and codes of a larger society.

Containment Theory - Criminality is brought about by the inability of the group to contain the behavior of its members and effective containment of the individual into the value system and structure of society will minimize crime. This theory was developed by Walter Reckless.

Copycat Crime - A copycat crime is a criminal act that is modeled or inspired by a previous crime that has been reported in the media or described in fiction.

Craniology - the scientific study of the shape and size of the skulls of different human races. Another term for Phrenology.

Criminaloid - (from the word "criminal" and suffix -oid, meaning criminal-like) is a person who projects a respectable, upright facade, in an attempt to conceal a criminal personality. This type, first
defined by Cesare Lombroso in the later editions of his 1876 work "The Criminal Man".

Criminal Personality
1. The roots of criminality lie in the way in which people think and make decisions; 
2. Criminals think and act differently from others, even at a very young age; 
3. Criminals are
irresponsible, 
4. Deterministic explanations of crime result from
believing the criminal who is seeking sympathy.

Anti-social personality - characterized by patterns of irresponsible and antisocial behavior, as well as
 aggressive tendencies.

Cultural deviance theory - seeks to explain criminal activity by focusing on the community in which crime occurs rather than the individual lawbreaker.

Cultural Transmission - by Thorsten Sellin, refers to the handing down of delinquent behaviors as socially learned and transferred from one generation to the next, taking place mostly among depressed and disorganized urban areas.

Cyril Burt - gave the theory of general emotionality. An excess of the submissive instinct accounts for the tendency of many criminals to be weak-willed or easily led. Fear and absconding may be due to the
impulse of fear.

Delusion - a belief that is not true: a false idea. : a false idea or belief that is caused by mental illness.

Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness") refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood. It is a term first used in 1891 in this Latin form by Arnold Pick (1851–1924), a professor of psychiatry at the German branch of Charles University in Prague.

Determinism - the belief that individual behavior is beyond the control of the individual; opposite of free will.

Differential Association Theory - Criminal behavior is learnable and learned in interaction with other deviant persons. Through this association, they learn not only techniques of certain crimes, but
also specific rationale, motives, and so on.

Edwin Sutherland - Differential association theory was Sutherland's major sociological contribution to criminology; similar in importance to strain theory and social control theory. These theories all explain deviance in terms of the individual's social relationships.

Imitation-Suggestion Theory -  by Gabriel Tarde, Delinquency and crime patterns are learned and adopted. The learning process either be conscious type copying or unconscious copying of confronting pattern of behavior.

Differential-Social Disorganization Theory - This is sometimes called Social Disorganization. There is social disorganization when there is breakdown, changes, and conflict of values between the new and the old when there is reduced influence of the social institution over behavior, and when there is declining influence of the solid moral and ethical front.

This theory focuses on the development of high-crime areas associated with the disintegration of conventional values caused by rapid industrialization, increased immigration, and urbanization.
       
Electroencephalogram - recording of electrical activity of the brain; measures it.

Emile Durkheim - father of sociology. He is a Frenchman, Chief among his claims is that society is a sui generis reality, or a reality unique to itself and irreducible to its composing parts. It is created when individual consciences interact and fuse together to create a synthetic reality that is completely new and greater than the sum of its parts.

E. O. Wilson - put forth a theory that differed from earlier theories, and believed that biological factors affect the perception and learning of social behaviors.

Etiology of Crime - causes of crime.

Eugenics - the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. Developed largely by Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race.

Free Will - the idea that human beings are free to choose one behavior or action over another.

Frustration - the feeling of being upset or annoyed, especially because of the inability to change or achieve something.

Gabriel Tarde - He introduced the Theory of imitation where he explained that this theory governs the process by which people become criminals.

Giambattista Della Porta - He founded the school of human physiognomy which is the study of facial features and their relation to human behavior.

General Deterrence - involves the effects of legal punishment on those persons who have not suffered.

Specific Deterrence -  involves the effects of legal punishment on those who have suffered it.

Genetics - the branch of biology that deals with heredity.

Gianelt Index of Criminality - This crimino-synthesis explains the reason why a person may commit a crime or inhibit himself from doing so.

Healy - (individual delinquency) crime is the expression of the mental content of the individual. The frustration of the individual causes emotional discomfort, personality demands the removal of pain, and the pain is eliminated by substitute behavior, which is the start of the crime delinquency of an individual.

Hedonism - pleasure or the absence of pain is the soul good in life.

Henry Maudsley - mental illness and criminal behavior went hand in hand, crime prone traits were inherited.

Hypoglycemia -  condition which the glucose in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning and is associated with criminal behavior.

Incapacitation - when they are locked up behind bars, they can't commit any more crimes.

Italian School Of Criminology - Founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and 2 of his disciples, Enrico Ferri and Rafael Garofalo.

Enrico Ferri - an Italian criminologist, and student of Lombroso, His work served as the basis for Argentina’s penal code of 1921. His research led to him postulating theories calling for crime prevention methods to be the mainstay of law enforcement, as opposed to punishment of criminals after their crimes had taken place.

Raffaele Garofalo - often regarded as the father of Criminology. He is a student of Cesare Lombroso. An Italian law professor who coined the term Criminologia in 1885.

James Q. Wilson -  advocate for special deterrence; utilitarian.

Jeremy Bentham - founder of the classical school of thought within criminology. He is a lawyer. He devised "Felicific Calculus" which states that individuals are human calculators who put all the factors into an equation in order to decide whether a particular crime is worth committing or not.

Jukes Family -  family of criminals. Descendants are criminally minded and committed crimes.

Jonathan Edwards Family - the opposite of Jukes Family, descendants are good people and attained prominence in various fields.

Kallikak Family - A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness was a 1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist Henry H. Goddard. The work was an extended case study of Goddard's for the inheritance of "feeble-mindedness," a general category referring to a variety of mental disabilities including mental retardation, learning disabilities, and mental illness. Goddard concluded that a variety of mental traits were hereditary and that society should limit reproduction by people possessing these traits.

Karyotype Studies - examination and comparison of chromosomes.

Kleptomania - a recurrent urge to steal, typically without regard for need or profit.

Lawrence Kohlberg - pathological jealousy, quick anger reactions, and the bearing of grudges.

Limbic System - a set of areas in the human brain that integrate a wide variety of messages from the senses and control goal-oriented responses to environmental and internal stimuli.

Megalomania - is a psychopathological condition characterized by delusional fantasies of power, relevance, omnipotence, and inflated self-esteem.

Mens Rea - The state of mind indicating culpability which is required by statute as an element of a crime.(Latin) guilty mind.

Miller Lower-Class Culture Conflict Theory - Citizens who obey the street rules of lower-class life find themselves in conflict with the dominant culture.

Moral/Intellectual Stages - deals with how adults morally represent a reason about the world that they live in.

Morphology - deals with the form and structure of an organism or any of its parts; measuring different parts of the human head; there is a meaningful relationship between certain types of physical features
and personality.

Neo-Classical Perspective - stressed that the legal system should focus exclusively on doing justice; and responding to the crime; the criminal made the rational decision.

Neurosis - a condition characterized by anxiety, impulses may break through and take control.

Paranoia - pathological jealousy, quick anger reactions, and the bearing of grudges.

Penal Couple - is defined as the relationship between perpetrator and victim of a crime. That is, both are involved in the event.

Penitentiary -  repent of wrongdoing and the will to atone for it.

Phobia - an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something.

Phrenology - study of the shape of the skull and bumps of facial features. The study of facial features.

Psychopathic Personality – This is the most important cause of criminality among youthful offenders and habitual criminals. It is characterized by an infantile level or rescind, lack of conscience, deficient feeling of affection for others, and aggression toward the environment and other people.

Physiognomy - to judge, interpret, or assess a person's character or personality from his or her outer appearance, especially the face. This study and science were used by Beccaria (1764) and Lavater (1175) to discover the character of a person.

Positivist School - based on determinism; human behavior is controlled by science.

Positivism - the belief that the classical school of thought is wrong in explaining what causes crime because they failed to explain adequately the why portion.

Cesare Lombroso - father of positivism; a medical doctor who wanted to see whether criminals were physically different, believed in atavistic anomaly.

Psychiatry - the study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behavior.

Psychoanalytic - the analysis of human behavior. First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the 19th century.

This theory blames delinquent behavior to a conscience that is either too overbearing that it arouses feelings of guilt or so weak that it cannot control the person's impulse and the need for immediate gratification.

Psychosis - a severe form of mental disturbance, behavior impairs or gets in the way of everyday focus, It takes control.

Recidivism - elapses into criminal behavior; where you return back into the criminal system.

Regression - a return to an earlier stage of life or a supposed previous life, especially through hypnosis or mental illness, or as a means of escaping present anxieties.

Samuel Yochelson - convinced that there is such thing as a criminal personality.

Schizophrenia - is often linked to criminal behavior, incoherent thought processes, thinking is scrambled and may have split personalities.

Schools of Thought - devices for organizing fundamentally differing views of human nature and relating them to issues surrounding crime and its control.

Sexual Deviation - a type of mental disorder characterized by a preference for or obsession with unusual sexual practices.

Exhibitionism - a mental condition characterized by the compulsion to display one's genitals in public.

Fetishism - is sexual attraction to objects, situations, or body parts not traditionally viewed as sexual.

Paraphilia - a condition characterized by abnormal sexual desires, typically involving extreme or dangerous activities.

Pedophilia - sexual feelings directed toward children.

Sadomasochism - is the giving or receiving of pleasure, sometimes sexual, from acts involving the infliction or reception of pain or humiliation.

Sadism - the tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from inflicting pain, suffering, or humiliation on others.

Transvestism (also called transvestitism) - is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with another gender.

Masochism - the tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from one's own pain or humiliation.

Voyeurism - Watching others while naked or having sex, generally without their knowledge; also known as scopophilia or scoptophilia.

Zoophilia - is a paraphilia involving cross-species sexual activity between human and non-human animals or a fixation on such practice.

Shaw and McKay's Ecological Theory - Crime is a product of transitional neighborhoods that manifest social disorganization and value conflict.

Sigmund Freud - Austrian psychiatrist; his approach: crime is but one form of deviance.

ID - contains the inner world of the individual's inborn instincts and reflexes.

Ego - represents the real world of the individual's conscious reason and common sense.

Superego - the inner world of the individual's ideal expectations and conscience; the conceptions of what the individual considers to be morally good.

Social Bond Theory - relation between social factors and individual activities; individuals become free to commit crimes when their ties to society are broken.

Travis Hirschi's factors of attachment, commitment, involvement and belief which insulate a person from crime.

Spiritual School - based on determinism; human behavior is determined by God or demons or Satan.

Stanton Samenow -  convinced that there is such thing as a criminal personality.

Thomas Hobbes - he believed that man is egotistical and self-centered; if he thought he could get away with it, then he would commit the crime.

Type of Physique

Ectomorph - a person with a lean and delicate body build. Are tall and thin and less social and more intellectual.

Mesomorph
- a person with a compact and muscular body build. Have well-developed muscles and an athletic appearance. They are active, aggressive, sometimes violent, and more likely to become criminals.

Endomorph - a person with a soft round body build and a high proportion of fat tissue. Have heavy builds and are slow-moving. They are known for lethargic behavior rendering them unlikely to commit violent crimes and more willing to engage in less strenuous criminal activities such as fencing stolen property.


Typology of Crime - involves classifying offenses or offenders according to some criteria of relatedness or similarity.

Utilitarianism - the belief that legal punishments serve two vital functions: 
1. deterring persons from committing the crimes and
2. protecting society from those whole acts that threaten the social order; the greatest good for the greatest number.

White-Collar Crime - These are offenses committed by highly respected people belonging to the upper socio-economic life and result in the commission of the crime in line with their given profession.

William Sheldon - an American psychologist who created the field of somatotype and constitutional psychology that tried to correlate body types with behavior, intelligence, and social hierarchy through his Ivy League nude posture photos.

                               Temperament

Viscerotonic - Coined by WH Sheldon, from viscera + -o- + tonic. Designating a personality type characterized as sociable, easy-going, and comfort-seeking.

Somatonic - active, dynamic; walks, talks, gestures assertively and behaves aggressively.

Cerebrotonic - Introvert and full of functional complaints to allergies, skin troubles, chronic fatigue, insomnia, insensitive skin, and to noise, shrinks from crowds.

XYY Syndrome - These people are very tall and disproportionate; and more inclined to commit crimes.