introduction to criminology
Introduction To Criminology

Introduction To Criminology
Definition of Terms

Abrahamsen - In his crime and human mind, 1945, explained the causes
of crime by his formula "Criminal Behavior equals criminalistic
tendencies plus crime inducing situation divided by the persons
mental or emotional resistance to temptation.

Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874) - was a Belgian mathematician, astronomer
and statistician, he helped to establish the cartographic school and
positivist schools of criminology which made extensive use of statistical
techniques. Through statistical analysis, Quetelet gained insight into
the relationships between crime and other social factors. Among his
findings were strong relationships between age and crime, as well
as gender and crime.

Alienist - a doctor specializing in the treatment of mental illness.
An expert witness in a sanity trial.

Andrew Von Hirsch -  developed the notion of just desert.

           Just desert - has five guidelines; 1. treat legal
           punishment as a desert; 2. avoid doing harm; 3. sentence
           delinquency, not the delinquent; 4. interfere parsimoniously;
           5. restrain efforts to prevent crime; modern day

Anger - is an emotion characterized by antagonism toward someone or
something you feel has deliberately done you wrong.

Anomie - is a condition in which society provides little moral
guidance to individuals.

Anthropology - is the study of humans, past and present.

Atavism - The return of a trait or recurrence of previous behavior
after a period of absence.

Atavistic Anomaly - physically their throwbacks on the evolutionary
scale to more primitive times, where people were savages.

August Aichhorn - is considered to be one of the founders of psychoanalytic
education. He is remembered for his work with juvenile delinquent and
disadvantaged youth. He believed that imposed discipline and suppression
which were practiced in traditional reformatories yielded few
positive results.

Autophobia - is the specific phobia of isolation; a morbid fear of
being egotistical, or a dread of being alone or isolated.

          Monophobia - is an acute fear of being alone and having to
          cope without a specific person, or perhaps any person, in
          close proximity.

Biometrics - is a technique for identification of people that uses
body characteristics or behavioural traits and is increasingly being
used instead of or in conjunction with other forms of identification
based on something you have (e.g. ID card) or something you know
(e.g. password or PIN).

Bromberg - (crime and mind 1948) criminality is the result of
emotional immaturity. A person is emotionally matured when he has
learned to control his emotion effectively and who live at peace
with himself and in harmony with the standard of conduct which are
acceptable to society. Am emotionally immature person rebels against
rules and regulations, tends to engage in unusual activities and
experience a feeling of guilt due to inferkiority complex.

Brotherhood - an association, society, or community of people linked
by a common interest, religion, or trade.

Cesare Beccaria - founders of the classical school of thought within

Cesare Lombroso - an Italian criminologist, founder of the Italian
school of criminology, formulated the theory of anthropological
criminology, essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and
that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects,
which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic.

Charles Darwin - wrote Origin of Species in 1859, kicked off the
scientific revolution, father of evolution.

Charles Goring - author of the influential work The English convict:
a statistical study.

          The English convict: a statistical study - It was first
          published in 1913, and set out to establish whether there
          were any significant physical or mental abormalities among
          the criminal classes that set them apart from ordinary men,
          as suggested by Cesare Lombroso. He ultimately concluded
          that "the physical and mental constitution of both criminal
          and law-abiding persons, of the same age, stature, class,
          and intelligence, are identical. There is no such thing as
          an anthropological criminal type."

Classical School - based on free will; able to make decisions in a
logical way; assumes people are hedonistic.

Conflict Of Culture Theory - by Thorstein Sellin. It was emphasized
in this theory that the multiplicity of conflicting cultures is the
principal source of social disorganization. The high crime and
delinquency rates of certain ethnic or racial group is explained by
their exposure to diverse and incongruent standards and codes of
larger society.

Containment Theory - criminality is brought about by the inability of
the group to contain behavior of its member and that of effective
containment of the individual into the value system and structure of
society will minimize crime.

Copycat Crime - A copycat crime is a criminal act that is modelled or
inspired by a previous crime that has been reported in the media or
described in fiction.

Criminaloid - (from the word "criminal" and suffix -oid, meaning
criminal-like) is a person who projects a respectable, upright facade,
in an attempt to conceal a criminal personality. This type, first
defined by Cesare Lombroso in the later editions of his 1876 work
"the Criminal man".

Criminal Personality - 1. the roots of criminality lie in the way in
which people think and make decisions; 2. criminals think and act
differently from others, even at a very young age; 3. criminals are
irresponsible, 4. deterministic explanations of crime result from
believing the criminal who is seeking sympathy.

          Anti-Social Personality - characterized by patterns of
          irresponsible and antisocial behavior, as well as
          aggressive tendencies.

Cyril Burt - gave the theory of general emotionality. An excess of the
submissive instinct account for tendency of many criminals to be
weak-willed or easily led. Fear and absconding may be due to the
impulse of fear.

Determinism - belief that individual behavior is beyond the control
of the individual; opposite of free will.

Differential Association Theory - Criminal behavior is learnable and
learned in interaction with other deviant persons. Through this
association, they learn not only techniques of certain crimes, but
also specific rationale, motives and so on.

          Edwin Sutherland - Differential association theory was
          Sutherland's major sociological contribution to criminology;
          similar in importance to strain theory and social control
          theory. These theories all explain deviance in terms of the
          individual's social relationships.

          Imitation-Suggestion Theory -  by Gabriel Tarde, Delinquency
          and crime pattern are learned and adopted. The learning
          process either be conscious type copying or unconscious
          copying of confronting pattern of behavior.

Differential-Social Disorganization Theory - This is sometimes called
Social Disorganization. There is social disorganization when there is
breakdown, changes, conflict of values between the new and the old,
when there is reduced influence of the social institution over behavior
and when there is declining influence of the solid moral and ethical
Electroencephalogram - recording of electrical activity of the brain;
measures it.

Emile Durkheim - father of sociology. He is a Frenchman, Chief among
his claims is that society is a sui generis reality, or a reality
unique to itself and irreducible to its composing parts. It is
created when individual consciences interact and fuse together to
create a synthetic reality that is completely new and greater than
the sum of its parts.

E. O. Wilson - put forth a theory that differed from earlier theories,
believed that biological factors affect the perception and learning
of social behaviors.

Etiology of Crime - causes of crime.

Eugenics - the science of improving a human population by controlled
breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
Developed largely by Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race.

Free Will - the idea that human beings are free to choose one behavior
or action over another.

Frustration - the feeling of being upset or annoyed, especially because
of inability to change or achieve something.

General Deterrence - involves the effects of legal punishment on
those persons who have not suffered.

          Specific Deterrence -  involves the effects of legal punishment
          on those who have suffered it.

Genetics - the branch in biology that deals with heredity.

Healy - (individual delinquency) crime is the expression of the mental
content of the individual. Frustration of the individual causes
emotional discomfort, personality demands removal of pain and the
pain is eliminated by substitute behavior, that is the start of the
crime delinquency of an individual.

Gianelt Index of Criminality - this crimino-synthesis explains the
reason why a person may commit a crime or inhibit himself from doing so.

Hedonism - pleasure or the absence of pain is the soul good in life.

Henry Maudsley - mental illness and criminal behavior went hand in
hand, crime prone traits were inherited.

Incapacitation - when they are locked up behind bars, they can't commit
anymore crimes.

Italian School Of Criminology - Founded in the end of the 19th century
by Cesare lombroso and 2 of his disciples, Enrico Ferri and Rafael

          Enrico Ferri - an italian criminologist, student of Lombroso,
          His work served as the basis for Argentina’s penal code of 1921.
          His research led to him postulating theories calling for crime
          prevention methods to be the mainstay of law enforcement, as
          opposed to punishment of criminals after their crimes had
          taken place.

          Rafael Garofalo - often regarded as the father of Criminology.
          He is a student of Cesare Lombroso.

James Q. Wilson -  advocate for special deterrence; ultilitarian.

Jeremy Bentham - founders of the classical school of thought within
criminology. He is a lawyer.

Jukes Family -  family of criminals. Descendants are criminally minded
and committed crimes.

          Jonathan Edwards Family - opposite of jukes Family,
          descendants are good people and attained prominence in
          various fields.

Kallikak Family - A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness was a
1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist Henry H. Goddard.
The work was an extended case study of Goddard's for the inheritance of
"feeble-mindedness," a general category referring to a variety of mental
disabilities including mental retardation, learning disabilities, and
mental illness. Goddard concluded that a variety of mental traits were
hereditary and society should limit reproduction by people possessing
these traits.

Karyotype Studies - examination and comparison of chromosomes.

Kleptomania - a recurrent urge to steal, typically without regard
for need or profit.

Lawrence Kohlberg - pathological jealousy, quick anger reactions, and
the bearing of grudges.

Limbic System - a set of areas in the human brain that integrate a
wide variety of messages from the senses and control goal-oriented
response to environmental and internal stimuli.

Megalomania - is a psychopathological condition characterized by
delusional fantasies of power, relevance, omnipotence, and by inflated

Mens Rea - The state of mind indicating culpability which is required
by statute as an element of a crime.(Latin) guilty mind.

Miller Lower-Class Culture Conflict Theory - citizens who obey the
street rules of lower class life find themselves in conflict with
the dominant culture.

Moral/Intellectual Stages - deals with how adults morally represent a
reason about the world that they live in.

Morphology - deals with the form and structure of an organism or any
of its parts; measuring different parts of the human head; there is
a meaningful relationship between certain types of physical features
and personality.

Neo-Classical Perspective - stressed that the legal system should
focus exclusively on doing justice; respond to the crime; the
criminal made the rational decision.

Neurosis - condition characterized by anxiety, impulses may
breakthrough and take control.

          Amnesia - a partial or total loss of memory. Origin late 18th
          century: from Greek amn─ôsia ‘forgetfulness.’

          Delusion - a belief that is not true : a false idea. : a
          false idea or belief that is caused by mental illness.

          Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness")
          refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder
          characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually
          beginning in the late teens or early adulthood. It is a term
          first used in 1891 in this Latin form by Arnold Pick (1851–1924),
          a professor of psychiatry at the German branch of Charles
          University in Prague.

          Psychosis - severe form of mental disturbance, behavior
          impairs or gets in the way of everyday focus, Id takes

          Schizophrenia - often linked to criminal behavior,
          incoherent thought process, thinking is scrambled and may
          have split personalities.

          Paranoia - pathological jealousy, quick anger reactions,
          and the bearing of grudges.

Penal Couple - is defined as the relationship between perpetrator and
victim of a crime. That is, both are involved in the event.

Penitentiary -  repent of wrongdoing and the will to atone for it.

Phobia - an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something.

Phrenology - study of the shape of the skull and bumps of
facial features. The study of facial features.

          Craniology - the scientific study of the shape and size of
          the skulls of different human races. Another term for

Psychopatic Personality – This is the most important cause of
criminality among youthful offenders and habitual criminals. It is
characterized by infantile level or rescind, lack of conscience,
deficient feeling of affection to others and aggression to environment
and other people.

Physiognomy - to judge, interpret, or assess a person's character or
personality from his or her outer appearance, especially the face.
This study and science was used by Beccaria (1764) and lavater (1175)
to discover the character of a person.

Positivist School - based on determinism; human behavior is controlled
by science.

          Positivism - the belief that the classical school of
          thought is wrong in explaining what causes crime because
          they failed to explain adequately the why portion.

          Cesare Lombroso - father of positivism; medical doctor who
          wanted to see whether criminals were physically different,
          believed in atavistic anomaly.

Psychiatry - the study and treatment of mental illness, emotional
disturbance, and abnormal behavior.

Psychoanalytic - the analysis of human behavior. First laid out by
Sigmund Freud in the 19th century.

Recidivism - elapse into criminal behavior; where you return back into
the criminal system.

Regression - a return to an earlier stage of life or a supposed previous
life, especially through hypnosis or mental illness, or as a means of
escaping present anxieties.

Samuel Yochelson - convinced that there is such thing as a criminal

Schools of Thought - devices for organizing fundamentally differing
views of human nature and relating them to issues surrounding crime
and its control.

Sexual Deviation - a type of mental disorder characterized by a
preference for or obsession with unusual sexual practices.

          Exhibitionism - a mental condition characterized by the
          compulsion to display one's genitals in public.

          Fetishism - is sexual attraction to objects, situations, or
          body parts not traditionally viewed as sexual.

          Paraphilia - a condition characterized by abnormal sexual
          desires, typically involving extreme or dangerous activities.

          Pedophilia - sexual feelings directed toward children.

          Sadomasochism - is the giving or receiving of pleasure,
          sometimes sexual, from acts involving the infliction or
          reception of pain or humiliation.

          Sadism - the tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual
          gratification, from inflicting pain, suffering, or humiliation
          on others.

          Transvestism (also called transvestitism) - is the practice
          of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally
          associated with another gender.

          Masochism - the tendency to derive pleasure, especially
          sexual gratification, from one's own pain or humiliation.

          Voyeurism - Watching others while naked or having sex,
          generally without their knowledge; also known as scopophilia
          or scoptophilia.

          Zoophilia - is a paraphilia involving cross-species sexual
          activity between human and non-human animals or a fixation
          on such practice.

Shaw and Mckay's Ecological Theory - crime is a product of transitional
neighborhoods that manifest social disorganization and value conflict.

Sigmund Freud - austrian psychiatrist; his approach: crime is but
one form of deviance.

          ID - contains the inner world of the individual's inborn
          instincts and reflexes.

          Ego - represents the real world of the individual's
          conscious reason and common sense.

          Superego - inner world of the individual's ideal
          expectations and conscience; the conceptions of what the
          individual considers to be morally good.

Social Bond Theory - relation between social factors and individual
activities; individuals become free to commit crimes when their ties
to society are broken.

Spiritual School - based on determinism; human behavior is determined
by God or demons or Satan.

Stanton Samenow -  convinced that there is such thing as a
criminal personality.

Thomas Hobbes - he believed that man is egotistical and self-centered;
if he thought he could get away with it, then he would commit the crime.

Type of Physique

          Ectomorph - a person with a lean and delicate body build. Are
          tall and thin and less social and more intellectual.

          Mesomorph - a person with a compact and muscular body build.
          Have well-developed muscles and an athletic appearance. They
          are active, aggressive, sometimes violent, and more likely
          to become criminals.

          Endomorph - a person with a soft round body build and a
          high proportion of fat tissue. Have heavy builds and are
          slow moving. They arte known for lethargic behavior
          rendering them unlikely to commit violent crime and more
          willing to engage in less strenuous criminal activities such
          as fencing stolen property.

Typology of Crime - involve classifying offenses or offenders according
to some criteria of relatedness or similarity.

Utilitarianism - the belief that legal punishments serve two vital
functions: 1. deterring persons from committing the crimes and
2. protecting society from those wholes acts threaten the social order;
the greatest good for the greatest number.

William Sheldon - an American psychologist who created the field of
somatotype and constitutional psychology that tried to correlate body
types with behavior,intelligence, and social hierarchy through his
Ivy league nude posture photos.

          Viscerotonic - Coined by WH Sheldon, from viscera + -o- +
          tonic. Designating a personality type characterised as
          sociable, easy-going, and comfort-seeking.

          Somatonic - active, dynamic; walks, talks, gestures
          assertively and behaves aggressively.

          Cerebrotonic - Introvert and full of functional complaints
          to allergies, skin troubles, chronic fatigue, insomia,
          insensitive skin, and to noise, shrinks from crowds.

XYY Syndrome - these people are very tall and disproportionate;
more inclined to commit crimes.