fire technology and arson investigation
Fire Technology

Fire Technology and Arson Investigation (Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

Fire Protection and  Arson Investigation (New Syllabi/TOS)

The registered criminologist can perform the competencies under the following sub-topics:
1. Explain the concept of Combustion
2. Illustrate the Classifications, Causes, Prevention, Control, and Extinguishments of Fire;
3. Recall the Organization and mandates of the Bureau of Fire Protection;
4. Understand, and critique The Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008 (RA 9514), its IRR, and The Law on Destructive Arson and relevant provisions of the Building Code of the Philippines;
5. Implement the Techniques and Procedure in Fire and Arson Investigation and Processing of Arson Evidence and filing of charges in court.

3 State of matter


4 General Categories Of Heat Energy

Chemical Heat Energy
Electrical Heat Energy
Mechanical Heat Energy
Nuclear Heat Energy

Backdraft - a phenomenon in which a fire that has consumed all available oxygen suddenly explodes when more oxygen is made available, typically because a door or window has been opened.

Boiling Point - The temperature of a substance where the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation.

British Thermal Unit - (BTU)  The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F.

Calorie - The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade.

Centigrade - (Celcius)  On the Centigrade scale, zero is the melting point of ice; 100 degrees is the boiling point of water.

Chemical Heat Energy

Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the combustion (oxidation) process.

Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from decomposing compounds.  These compounds may be unstable and release their heat very quickly or they may detonate.

Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of matter in a liquid.  Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.

Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat. Spontaneous heating occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the heat produced.  The speed of a heating reaction doubles with each 180 F (80 C) temperature increase.

Classification of Fires
Class A Fire - Fires involving ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.

Class B Fires - Fires involving flammable liquids, greases, and gases.

Class C Fires - Fires involving energized electrical equipment.

Class D Fires - Fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium.

Class K Fires - Class K is a new classification of fire as of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels such as vegetable or animal fats.

Combustion - is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel being reduced by an oxidizing agent along with the evolution of heat and light.

Creeping - A fire spreading slowly over the ground, generally with a low flame.

Crown fires - burn through the top layer of foliage on a tree, known as the canopy. Crown fires, the most intense type of fire and often the most difficult to contain, need strong winds, steep slopes, and a heavy fuel load to continue burning.

Dry Chemicals and Halons - method of fire extinguishment, interrupts the flame-producing chemical reaction, resulting in rapid extinguishment.

Electrical Heat Energy

Dielectric Heating - The heating that results from the action of either pulsating direct current or alternating current at high frequency on a non-conductive material.

Heat from Arcing - Heat released either as a high-temperature arc or as molten material from the conductor.

Heat Generated by Lightning - The heat generated by the discharge of thousands of volts from either earth to cloud, cloud to cloud, or from cloud to ground.

Induction Heating - The heating of materials resulting from an alternating current flow causing a magnetic field influence.

Leakage Current Heating - The heat resulting from imperfect or improperly insulated electrical materials.  This is particularly evident where the insulation is required to handle high voltage or loads near maximum capacity.

Resistance Heating - The heat generated by passing an electrical force through a conductor such as a wire or an appliance.

Static Electricity Heating - Heat released as an arc between oppositely charged surfaces.  Static electricity can be generated by the contact and separation of charged surfaces or by fluids flowing through pipes.

Endothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a substance absorbs heat energy.

Exothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a substance gives off heat energy.

Fahrenheit - On the Fahrenheit scale, 32 degrees is the melting point of ice; 212 degrees is the boiling point of water.

Fire point - The temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce vapors sufficient to support combustion once ignited. The fire point is usually a few degrees above the flash point.

Fire Triangle - Oxygen, Fuel, Heat

Using the same theory, there are three ways to extinguish fire:
1. Reduce the temperature (cooling)
2. Cut-off the Oxygen supply
3. Remove the Fuel

Fire National Training Institute - (FNTI) is the Institution for training on human resource development of all personnel of the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP).

Flame - A gas-phased combustion.

Flammable or Explosive Limit - The percentage of a substance in the air that will burn once it is ignited.  Most substances have an upper (too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit.

Flashover - an instance of a fire spreading very rapidly across a gap because of intense heat. Occurs when a room or other area becomes heated to the point where flames flash over the entire surface or area.

Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface.  At this temperature, the ignited vapors will flash, but
will not continue to burn.

Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process. Material such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned to produce heat or power.

Fuel Removal - method of fire extinguishment, fire is effectively extinguished by removing the fuel source.  This may be accomplished by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid fuel in the path of the fire or allowing the fire to burn until all fuel is consumed.

Glowing Combustion -  A condensed phased combustion.

Heat - the quality of being hot; high temperature. A form of energy arising from the random motion of the molecules of bodies, which ay be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation.

Heating - is the transfer of energy, from a hotter body to a colder one, other than by work or transfer of matter.

Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the combustion (oxidation) process.

Heat Transfer

Conduction - is transferring heat through a material by direct contact between particles.

Convection - is the process of heat transfer by the movement of fluids.

Radiation - is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. This process does not require a material to be in contact with the object that is emitting the radiation. Radiation can travel through a vacuum, which makes it very efficient at transferring heat over long distances.

Ignition Temperature - The minimum temperature to which a fuel in air must be heated in order to start self-sustained combustion independent of the heating source.

Heat - The form of energy that raises temperature.  Heat is measured by the amount of work it does.

Heat of Decomposition -  The release of heat from decomposing compounds. These compounds may be unstable and release their heat very quickly or they may detonate.

Heat of Solution -  The heat released by the mixture of matter in a liquid.  Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.

Mechanical Heat Energy

Frictional Heat - The heat generated by the movement between two objects in contact with each other.

Friction Sparks - The heat generated in the form of sparks from solid objects striking each other.  Most often at least one of the objects is metal.

Heat of Compression - The heat generated by the forced reduction of a gaseous volume.  Diesel engines ignite fuel vapor without a spark plug by the use of this principle.

Nuclear Fission and Fusion - The heat generated by either the splitting or combining of atoms.

Oxidation - The complex chemical reaction of organic material with oxygen or other oxidizing agents in the formation of more stable compounds.

Oxidizing Agents - are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction.

Oxygen Dilution - is the reduction of the oxygen concentration to
the fire area.

Phases of Fire
 Incipient Phase (Growth Stage)  
 Free-Burning Phase (Fully Developed Stage)
 Smoldering Phase (Decay Stage)

Products of Combustion

Fire gases

Pyrolysis (also known as thermal decomposition) - is defined as the chemical decomposition of matter through the action of heat.

RA 6975 - created the BFP.

Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) - administers and enforces the fire code of the Philippines. The Fire Bureau shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires and, if necessary, file the proper complaints with the city or provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case.

Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.
Deputy Chief for Administration of the Fire Bureau - 2nd highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.

Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau - the 3rd highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.

Chief of Directorial Staff of the Fire Bureau - 4th highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent.

Directors of the Directorates in the respective national headquarters office - rank is Senior Superintendent.

Regional Director for Fire Protection - The BFP  shall establish, operate and maintain their respective
regional offices in each of the administrative regions of the country. Rank is Senior Superintendent.
- He/She shall be respectively assisted by the following officers with the rank of Superintendent:
 Assistant Regional Director for Administration,
 Assistant Regional Director for Operations, and
 Regional Chief of Directorial Staff.
Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - The assistant heads of the Department's regional offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall - the head of the NCR district offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.

Provincial Fire Marshall - the head of the provincial offices - rank is Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall - heads of the district offices - rank is Chief Inspector.

Chief of Municipal/City Fire Station - (also called City/Municipal Fire Marshall) - the head of the municipal or city stations - rank is Senior Inspector.

Fire Station - at least one in every provincial capital, city, and municipality.

LGU - (Local Government Unit) - shall provide the site of the Fire Station.

RA 9263 - This Act shall be known as the "Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Professionalization Act of 2004.

The BFP is headed by a Chief to be assisted by 2 deputy chiefs, 1 for administration and 1 for operation, all appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary from among qualified officers with at least the rank of Senior Superintendent in the service.

In no case shall any officer who has retired or is retirable within six (6) months from his/her compulsory retirement age be appointed as Chief of the Fire Bureau or Chief of the Jail Bureau.

The Chief of the Fire Bureau and Chief of the Jail Bureau shall serve a tour of duty not to exceed four (4) years.

The President may extend such tour of duty in times of war or other national emergency declared by Congress.

RA 9514 - This act shall be known as the fire code of the Philippines of 2008. An Act establishing a comprehensive fire code of the Philippines repealing PD 1185 and for other purposes.

Running - A fire rapidly spreading and with a well-defined head.

Smoldering  - A fire burning without flame and barely spreading.

Specific Gravity - the density of liquids in relation to water.

Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat. Spontaneous heating occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the
heat produced.

Spotting - A fire producing firebrands carried by the surface wind, a fire whirl, and/or convection column that fall beyond the main fire area.

Temperature Reduction - method of extinguishing fire,  cooling the fuel with water to a point where it does not produce sufficient vapor to burn.

Torch or Torching - A single tree or a small clump of trees is said to "torch" when its foliage ignites and flares up, usually from bottom to top. (Synonym - Candle or Candling.)

Vapor Density - the density of a particular gas or vapor relative to that of hydrogen at the same pressure and temperature.

Definition of Terms Under RA 9514

Abatement - Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard.

Administrator - Any person who acts as agent of the owner and manages the use of a building for him.

Blasting Agent - Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used to set off explosives.

Cellulose Nitrate or Nitro Cellulose - A highly combustible and explosive compound produced by the reaction of nitric acid with a cellulose material.

Cellulose Nitrate Plastic (Pyroxylin) - Any plastic substance, materials, or compound having cellulose nitrate (nitro cellulose) as base.

Combustible, Flammable or Inflammable - Descriptive of materials that are easily set on fire.

Combustible Fiber - Any readily ignitable and free-burning fiber such as cotton, oakum, rags, waste cloth, waste paper, kapok, hay, straw, Spanish moss, excelsior, and other similar materials commonly
used in commerce.

Combustible Liquid - Any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 C (100 F).

Corrosive Liquid - Any liquid which causes fire when in contact with organic matter or with certain chemicals.

Curtain Board - A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire-resistive materials attached to and extending below the bottom chord of the roof trusses, to divide the underside of the roof into separate compartments so that heat and smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent.

Cryogenic - Descriptive of any material which by its nature or as a result of its reaction with other elements produces a rapid drop in temperature of the immediate surroundings.

Damper - A normally open device installed inside an air duct system which automatically closes to restrict the passage of smoke or fire.

Distillation - The process of first raising the temperature in separate the more volatile from the less volatile parts and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor so as to produce a nearly purified

Duct System - A continuous passageway for the transmission of air.

Dust - A finely powdered substance which, when mixed with air in the proper proportion and ignited will cause an explosion.

Electrical Arc - An extremely hot luminous bridge formed by passage of an electric current across a space between two conductors or terminals due to the incandescence of the conducting vapor.

Ember - A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned, and is still oxidizing without the manifestation of flames.

Finishes - Materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental or protective purposes.

Fire - The active principle of burning, characterized by the heat and light of combustion.

Fire Alarm - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warm the occupants of the building or fire fighting elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate action to save life and property and to suppress the fire.

Fire Compartment - A space within a building that is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

Fire Door - A fire resistive door prescribed for openings in fire separation walls or partitions.

Fire Hazard - Any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder, or interfere with firefighting operations
and the safeguarding of life and property.

Fire Lane - The portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept open and unobstructed at all times for the expedient operation of fire fighting units.

Fire Protective and Fire Safety Device - Any device intended for the protection of buildings or persons including but not limited to built-in protection systems such as sprinklers and other automatic
extinguishing system, detectors for heat, smoke, and combustion products and other warning system components, and personal protective equipment such as fire blankets, helmets, fire suits, gloves, and other
garments that may be put on or worn by persons to protect themselves during fire.

Fire Safety Constructions - Refers to design and installation of walls, barriers, doors, windows, vents, means of egress, etc. integral to and incorporated into a building or structure in order to minimize danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes, or panic before the building is evacuated. These features are also designed to achieve, among others, safe and rapid evacuation of people through means of egress sealed
from smoke or fire, the confinement of fire or smoke in the room or floor of origin, and delay their spread to other parts of the building by means of smoke sealed and fire resistant doors, walls, and floors. It shall also mean to include the treatment of building components or contents with flame-retardant chemicals.

Fire Trap - A building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn easily or because it lacks adequate exits or fire escapes.

Fire Wall - An exterior wall designed to prevent the spread of fire, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than four (4) hours with sufficient structural stability to remain standing even if construction on either side collapses under fire conditions. Fire walls particularly erected above or along property lines shall have absolutely no openings and shall extend above the roof to one meter (1 m).

Flame Retardant - Any compound or mixture which when applied properly improves the resistivity or fire resistance quality of fabrics and other materials.

Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air.

Fogging - The creation of a cloud of ultra-fine droplets, which are airborne and readily picked up by the insect as it flies through the swathe of insecticide, fog or mist.

Forging - A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or dimensions.

Forcing - A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or dimensions.

Fulminate - A kind of stable explosive compound which explodes by percussion.

Hazardous Operation/Process - Any act of manufacturing, fabrication, conversion, etc., that uses or produces materials which are likely to cause fires or explosions.

Horizontal Exit - Passageway from one building to another or through or around a wall in approximately the same floor level.

Hose Box - A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves, and other equipment are stored and arranged for fire fighting.

Hose Reel - A cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a fire hose is wound and connected.

Hypergolic Fuel - A rocket or liquid propellant which consists of combinations of fuels and oxidizers which ignite spontaneously on contact with each other.

Industrial Baking and Drying - The industrial process of subjecting materials to heat for the purpose of removing solvents or moisture from the same, and/or to fuse certain chemical salts to form a uniform glazing the surface of materials being treated.

Jumper - A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device in an electrical system.

Occupancy - The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is used or intended to be used.

Occupant - Any person actually occupying and using a building or portions thereof by virtue of a lease contract with the owner or administrator or by permission or sufferance of the latter.

Organic Peroxide - A strong oxidizing organic compound which releases oxygen readily. It causes fire when in contact with combustible materials, especially under conditions of high temperature.

Overloading - The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw or consume electrical current beyond the designed capacity of the existing electrical system.

Owner - The person who holds the legal right of possession or title to a building or real property.

Oxidizing Material - A material that readily yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to stimulate or support combustion.

Pressurized Or Forced Draft Burning Equipment - Type or burner where the fuel is subjected to pressure prior to discharge into the combustion chamber and/or which includes fans or other provisions for the introduction of air at above normal atmosphere pressure into the same combustion chamber.

Public Assembly Building - Any building or structure where fifty (50) or more people congregate, gather, or assemble for any purpose.

Public Way - Any street, alley or other strip of land unobstructed from the ground to the sky, deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated for public use.

Pyrophoric - Descriptive of any substance that ignites spontaneously when exposed to air.

Refining - A process where impurities and/or deleterious materials are removed from a mixture in order to produce a pure element of compound. It shall also refer to partial distillation and electrolysis.

Self-Closing Doors - Automatic closing doors that are designed to confine smoke and heat and delay the spread of fire.

Smelting - Melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to separate impurities from pure metals.

Sprinkler System - An integrated network of hydraulically designed piping installed in a building, structure or area with outlets arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically discharges water
when activated by heat or combustion products from a fire.

Standpipe System - A system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire hoses can be attached on each floor, including a system by which water is made available to the outlets as needed.

Vestibule - A passage hall or antechamber between the outer doors and the interior parts of a house or building.

Vertical Shaft - An enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from floor to floor, as well as from the base to the top of the building.

Fire in Legend and Religion
• In Persian literature – Fire was discovered during a fight between a hero with a beast. A stone that the hero used as a weapon missed the monster and struck a rock. Sparks were seen and humans saw fire for the first time.
• In Greek mythology, Prometheus was bestowed with god-like powers when he stole the gods’ fire to give it to humanity.
• Fire played a central role in religion. It has been used as a god and recognized as a symbol of home and family in many cultures. Fire has also been a symbol of purification and immortality.   

Important Personalities and their Invention
1. John Walker – He was an English Pharmacist who invented the first match in 1827. The tip of this match was coated with a mixture of antimony sulfide and potassium chlorate that was held on the wooden matchstick by gum Arabic and starch.
2.  Antoine Lavoisier – A French chemist who proved in 1777 that burning is the result of the rapid union of oxygen with other substances. As the substances burn, heat and light are produced.
3. Thomas Alva Edison – An American inventor who was able to send an electric current through a carbon filament until the filament became so hot that it gave off light. 

Elements of Fire or the Triangle of Fire 
1. Fuel – anything that will burn when heated with sufficient oxygen 
2. Oxygen – the common oxidizing agent; that aids in combustion; comes from the atmosphere we breathe; the atmosphere contains: 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% impurities 
3. Heat – source of ignition

Properties of Fire:

A. Physical Properties of Matter Related to Fire
1. Specific gravity – The ratio of the weight of a solid or substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.
2. Vapor density – The weight of a volume of pure gas compared to the weight of a volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure.
3. Vapor pressure – The force exerted by the molecules on the surface of the liquid at equilibrium.
4. Temperature – the measure of the thermal degree of the agitation of molecules of a given substance; the measure of the molecule activity within a substance.
5. Boiling point – Is the constant temp. at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
6. Fire points – Is the lowest temp. of a liquid in an open container at which vapors are evolved fast enough to support continuous combustion.
7. Flashpoint – Is the temp. At which flammable liquids form a vapor air mixture that ignites.
8. Auto-ignition point/kindling temp.

B. Chemical Properties of Fire:
1. Endothermic Reaction – changes whereby energy (heat) is absorbed or is added before the reaction takes place.
2. Exothermic reactions – are those that release or give off energy (heat) thus they produce substances with less energy than the reactants.
3. Oxidation – It is defined, as a chemical change in which combustible material (fuel) and an oxidizing agent, like oxygen, react.
4. Combustion – burning 
5. Flame

Fire Tetrahedron 
1. Oxygen (Oxidizing Agent) - a colorless, odorless gas and one of the compositions of air which is approximately 21% percent by volume.
2.  Fuel – the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process. Fuel sources: a) Solid – molecules are closely packed together; b) Liquid – molecules are loosely packed; c) Gas – molecules are free to move
3. Heat – the energy component of the fire tetrahedron; when heat comes into contact with fuel, the energy supports the combustion reaction; heat energy is measured in units of Joules (J), however, it can also be measured in Calories (1 Calorie = 4.184 J) and BTU's (1 BTU = 1055 J)

Types of Energy (common sources of heat)
A. Chemical Energy – the most common source of heat in combustion reactions 
B. Electrical Energy – can generate a temperature high enough to ignite any combustible material near the heated area. 
   a. over current or overload 
   b. sparking  
   c. lightning 
   d. Arcing 
   e. static
C. Nuclear Energy – generated when atoms either split apart (fission) or combine (fusion)
   a. fission heats water to drive steam turbines and produce electricity
   b. solar energy is a product of a fusion reaction 
D. Mechanical Energy – an energy created by friction and compression:
  a. Heat of friction - the movement of two surfaces against each other, thus producing sparks
  b. Heat of compression - heat is generated when a gas is compressed in a container or cylinder 

Temperature – a measure of the degree of molecular activity of a material compared to a reference point; a measure of the degree of molecular activity of a material compared to a reference point; measured in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius     

º C º F   
37 98.6 Normal human oral/body temperature
44 111 Human skin begins to feel pain
48 118 Human skin receives a first-degree burn injury
55 131 Human skin receives a second-degree burn injury
62 140 A phase where burned human tissue becomes numb
72 162 Human skin is instantly destroyed
100  212 Water boils and produces steam
140  284 Glass transition temperature of polycarbonate
230  446 Melting temperature of polycarbonate
250  482 Charring of natural cotton begins
300  572 Charring of modern protective clothing fabrics begins
600 1112 Temperatures inside a post-flashover room fire

4. Self-sustained Chemical Reaction - Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in the gaseous or vapor state), an oxidizer, and heat energy to come together in a very specific way. Once flaming combustion or fire occurs, it can only continue when enough heat energy is produced to cause the continued development of fuel vapors or gases. Scientists call this type of reaction a “chain reaction”. A chain reaction is a series of reactions that occur in sequence with the result of each individual reaction being added to the rest.

What Are The Classes Of Fire Extinguishers? 
There are mainly four classes of fire extinguishers – A, B, C, and D – and each class can put out a different type of fire.
Class A extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood and paper
Class B extinguishers are for use on flammable liquids like grease, gasoline, and oil
Class C extinguishers are suitable for use only on electrically energized fires
Class D extinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals
Class E – fires involving electrically energized equipment.
Class F – fires involving cooking oils and fats.

It should be operated using the P.A.S.S. technique
P. Pull the pin on the fire extinguisher to break the tamper seal.
A. Aim the fire extinguisher low, with the nozzle pointed at the base of the fire. 
S. Squeeze the handle of the fire extinguisher to release the extinguishing agent. 
S. Sweep the nozzle from side to side while pointing at the base of the fire until it is extinguished. 
If the fire re-ignites, repeat the last 3 steps.

Stages of Fire
1. Ignition – describes the period when the four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion begins
2. Growth – shortly after ignition, a fire plume begins to form above the burning fuel. As the plume develops, it begins to draw or entrain air from the surrounding space into the column. 
3. Flashover – the transition between the growth and the fully developed fire stages and is not a specific event such as ignition. During flashover, conditions in the compartment change very rapidly as the fire changes from one that is dominated by the burning of the materials first ignited to one that involves all of the exposed combustible surfaces within the compartment.
4. Fully developed – occurs when all combustible materials in the compartment are involved in the fire 
5. Decay – as the fire consumes the available fuel in the compartment, the rate of heat released begins to decline.

Three (3) Stages of Fire
1. Incipient phase – Initial stage of fire. Characteristics:
     A. normal room temperature  
     B. thermal updraft rise accumulates at a higher point 
     C. Producing C02, CO, SO2, water and other gases       
     D. oxygen plentiful 
     E. temperature at 1000 F
2. Free Burning Phase – A phase of burning in which materials or structures are burning in the presence of adequate oxygen. Characteristics:
     A. fire has involved more fuel 
     B.heat accumulates at the upper area
     C. area is fully involved
     D. oxygen supply has been depleted
     E. Temperature exceeds 1,330 F
3. Smoldering – the final phase of burning wherein flame ceases but dense smoke and heat completely fill the confined room

The three groups of combustible materials based on the three states of matter are:
1. Solid Combustible Materials – Includes inorganic or organic, natural or synthetic, and metallic solid materials.
2. Liquid Combustible Materials – Includes all flammable liquid fuels and chemicals.
3. Gaseous Substances – Includes those toxic/hazardous gases that are capable of ignition.

Classification of Combustible Materials:
1. Class A Fuel – ordinary combustible materials that are usually made of organic substances such as wood and wood-based products; includes some of those synthetic and/or inorganic materials like rubber, leather, and plastics.
2. Class B Fuel – materials that are in the form of flammable liquids such as alcohol, acidic solutions, oil, and other chemicals such those liquid petroleum products.
3. Class C Fuel – normally fire-resistant materials; these are materials used in electrical wiring and other electrical appliances.
4. Class D Fuel – combustible metallic substances such as magnesium, titanium; zirconium, sodium, and potassium.

Factors affecting the combustibility of wood and wood-based products:
1. Physical form 
2. Heat conductivity
3. Rate of Combustion
4. Moisture content - water content
5. Rate and Period of heating
6. Ignition Temperature

Two (2) General Groups of Liquid Fuels:
1. Flammable Liquids – liquids have a flash point below 37.8 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit)
2. Combustible Liquids – liquids have flash points at or above 37.8 degrees Celsius. (100 degrees Fahrenheit )

Classification of Gases:

A. Based on Source:
1. Natural Gas – The gas used to heat buildings, cook food, and provide energy for industries. It consists chiefly of methane, a colorless and odorless gas. Natural gas is usually mixed with compounds of the foul-smelling element sulfur so gas leaks can be detected. Butane and propane, which make up a small proportion of natural gas, become liquids when placed under a large amount of pressure. When pressure is released, they change back into gas. Such fuels often called liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), are easily stored and shipped as liquid.
2. Manufactured Gas – This gas like synthetic liquid fuels is used chiefly where certain fuels are abundant and others are scarce. Coal, petroleum, and Biomass can all be converted to gas through heating and various chemical procedures. Gas can also be produced by treating such biomass as animal manure with bacteria called ANAEROBES. The bacteria expel methane as they digest the waste.

B. Based on or According to Physical Properties:
1. Compressed Gases – are those in normal atmospheric temperature pressure inside their container. Its pressure is dependent on how much gas is inside the container.
2. Liquefied Gases – are those in normal atmospheric pressure partly in liquid state and partly in solid state under pressure inside the container. Its pressure is dependent upon the temperature of the liquid.
3. Cryogenic Gases – are liquefied gases that exist in their container at temperatures far below normal atmospheric temperature, usually slightly above their boiling point with low moderate pressure.

C. Based on Usage:
1. Fuel gases – flammable gases used for burning with air to produce heat and utilized as power, light sources, etc...
2. Industrial gases – a large number of gases used in industrial processes such as those used in welding and cutting of metals. (Oxygen, acetylene), refrigeration, chemical processing, water treatment, etc.e.g. Freon, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and fluorine.
3. Medical gases - those used for treatment such as for anesthesia, and for respiratory therapy. E.g. Chloroform, nitrous oxide, oxygen.

Modes of Heat Transfer
1. Conduction – heat transfer within solids or between contacting solids. When a hot object transfers its heat, conduction takes place. The transfer could be to another object or to another portion of the same object. As we have discovered and will be constantly reinforced about, combustion occurs on the molecular level. When an object heats up, the atoms become agitated and begin to collide with one another. A chain reaction of molecules and atoms, like wave energy, occurs and causes the agitated molecules to pass the heat energy to areas of non-heat.
2. Convection – heat transfer by the movement of liquids or gasses. Air that is hotter than its surroundings rises. Air that is cooler than its surroundings sinks. Air is made up of many molecules floating about freely. Even so, it still has weight. Some molecules are made up of the same element. For example, oxygen in its natural state will combine with another oxygen atom to form a stable oxygen molecule. In a given volume, air at a given temperature will have the same density. density. When heated, as in conduction theory, the molecules become agitated and begin to collide with one another. In the process, the molecules are demanding more space to accommodate the vibrations and they push into one another as they seek that space. When that happens, the density of a given volume is reduced and it weighs less. Because it weighs less, it rises until it reaches equilibrium-the level at which the weight is the same as the surrounding atmosphere.
3. Radiation – heat transfer by electromagnetic waves. The last form of heat transfer occurs by radiation. As we have already seen, heat energy can be transmitted directly when molecules collide with one another and cause the waves of heat energy to travel.
4. Flame Contact – heat may be conducted from one body to another by direct flame contact  

Classifications of Fire 

A. Based on Cause 
1. Natural Fire – providential involves fires without direct human intervention. 
A. Earthquake 
B. Typhoon
C. Lightning
D. Spontaneous combustion arising from the storage of combustible materials in poorly ventilated places 
E. Explosion from petroleum products, alcohol, and other substances 
F. Sun rays focused on glasses which may serve as a convex lens 
2. Accidental Fire:
A. Carelessly discarded cigarettes 
B. Careless disposition of readily combustible materials
C. Poorly managed or defective heating facilities
D. Overheating, spark, and electrical defects
E. Overload electric circuits/ Octopus connections
F. Children playing matches
E. Use of candles
3. Intentional Fire/Incendiary – Is one deliberately set under circumstances in which the person knows that the fire should not be set.
4. Undetermined – whenever the cause cannot be proven, the proper classification is undetermined

B. Based on Burning Fuel 
1. CLASS A – ordinary solid materials such as wood, paper, fabrics, etc.; this will be indicated by deep cited fire, leaves ashes, and embers (glowing coals) after burning. 
2. CLASS B – flammable liquids such as gasoline, lube oil, kerosene, paint thinner, etc.
3. CLASS C – electrical appliances; cause electric shock.
4. CLASS D – metal fire such as magnesium (white element burning with dazzling light), sodium 
(a silver-white metallic element), etc.; creates violent reactions.
5. CLASS E – flammable gases such as LPG, LNG, etc.; also create violent reactions. 

 Fire Classes in the United Kingdom and Europe
A – ordinary combustibles
B – flammable or flammable liquids
C – flammable gasses
D – combustible metals
E – (this class is no longer existing in Europe)
F – cooking oils and fats

Fire Classes in Australia and Asia 
A – everyday combustibles
B – combustible or combustible liquids
C – combustible gasses
D – combustible metals
E – electrical equipment
F – cooking fats and oils

Fire Classes in the U.S.A. (NFPA)
A – regular combustibles
B – flammable liquids and gases
C – electrical appliances
D – combustible metals
K – cooking oils and fats

Fire Extinguishing Agent 
Class A – water (all agents)
Class B – foam/carbon dioxide (all agents)
Class C – carbon dioxide/powder (never use water, soda acid, and foam)
Class D – special powder
Class E – all agents

Types of Dry Chemical Extinguisher
1. Ammonium phosphate – also known as "tri-class", "multipurpose" or "ABC" dry chemical, used on class A, B, and C fires. It receives its class A rating from the agent's ability to melt and flow at 177 °C (350 °F) to smother the fire. More corrosive than other dry chemical agents. Pale yellow in color.
2. Foam-Compatible – which is a sodium bicarbonate (BC) based dry chemical, was developed for use with protein foams for fighting class B fires. Most dry chemicals contain metal stearates to waterproof them, but these will tend to destroy the foam blanket created by protein (animal) based foams. Foam-compatible type uses silicone as a waterproofing agent, which does not harm foam. Effectiveness is identical to regular dry chemical, and it is light green in color (some ANSUL brand formulations are blue). This agent is generally no longer used since most modern dry chemicals are considered compatible with synthetic foams such as AFFF.
3. MET-L-KYL – This is a specialty variation of sodium bicarbonate for fighting pyrophoric liquid fires (ignite on contact with air). In addition to sodium bicarbonate, it also contains silica gel particles. The sodium bicarbonate interrupts the chain reaction of the fuel and the silica soaks up any unburned fuel, preventing contact with air. It is effective on other class B fuels as well. Blue/Red in color.
4. Potassium bicarbonate & Urea Complex (aka Monnex) – used on Class B and C fires. More effective than all other powders due to its ability to decrepitate (where the powder breaks up into smaller particles) in the flame zone creating a larger surface area for free radical inhibition.
5. Potassium bicarbonate (Purple-K) is used on class B and C fires. About two times as effective on class B fires as sodium bicarbonate, it is the preferred dry chemical agent of the oil and gas industry. The only dry chemical agent certified for use in ARFF by the NFPA. Violet in color.
6. Potassium Chloride or Super-K dry chemical – was developed to create a high efficiency, protein-foam compatible dry chemical. Developed in the '60s, before Purple-K, it was never as popular as other agents since being a salt, it was quite corrosive. For B and C fires, white in color.
7. Sodium bicarbonate – “regular" or "ordinary" used on class B and C fires, was the first of the dry chemical agents developed. It interrupts the fire's chemical reaction and was very common in commercial kitchens before the advent of wet chemical agents, but now is falling out of favor, as it is much less effective than wet chemical agents for class K fires, less effective than Purple-K for class B fires, and is ineffective on class A fires. White or blue in color.

Methods of Extinguishment 
1. Cooling – heat absorption. 
2. Smothering – by expelling oxygen 
3. Separation – the removal of the fuel.
4. Inhibition or the interruption of chemical chain reaction

Strategies Used in Firefighting: 
1. Locate the fire 
2. Extinguish the fire
3. Confine the fire 
4.  Exposures 

Factors to Consider in Extinguishment: 
1. Time 
2. Weather (temperature, humidity, wind)
3. Fire ( ex. Extent, location, bldg construction, contents involved)
4. Occupancy
5. Ventilation (used for clearing the bldg of smoke and gases)

Types of Ventilation: 
A. Vertical ventilation – must be worked from the top to bottom 
B. Cross or horizontal ventilation – used if gases have not reached a higher level through the opening of windows
C. Mechanical force ventilation – a method whereby a device such as a smoke ejector is utilized to remove excessive heat and dense smoke 

Factors to determine the location for the opening: 
1. Location of the intensity of the fire 
2. Direction of wind
4. Highest point on the roof 
5. Existing exposure
6. Extent of fire 
7. Obstruction

Additional Basic Tactics Used in Extinguishing Fire
1. Rescue – any action taken by the firefighters to remove occupants/ persons from the building/ hazards to a safe place
2. Overhaul – a complete and detailed check of the structures and materials involved in the fire to make sure that every spark and ember has been extinguished and to have assurance against re-ignition
3. Salvage – an action taken by the firefighters to prevent excessive damage by fire, or water with the use of salvage cover or by removing materials from the burning building 

Ladder Terminology
1. Bed ladder – the lowest section of an extension ladder
2. Fly ladder – the top section of an extension ladder
3. Butt – the bottom end of a ladder
4. Heel – the part of the ladder that touches the ground
5.  Halyard – a rope or cable used to raise the fly ladder
6. Pawl or dog – the mechanism located at the end of the fly ladder that locks to the bed ladder
7. Rung – the cross member of the ladder that is used for climbing
8. Top or tip – it is the top part of the ladder
9. Hooks – part of a ladder that is used to hook over a roof peak, sills, or walls where the heel does not rest on a foundation. (roof type ladders) 
10. Stops – made of metal or wood blocks used to prevent the fly of an extension ladder from extending out further from the ladder
11. Guides – light metal strips of an extension ladder that guide the fly ladder while it is being raised or lowered

Types of Ladder
1. Ground ladders (10 to 55 ft. long) 
2.   Aerial ladders

Purposes of Ladders
1. for rescue
2. to stretch the line into a fire building 
3. to provide ventilation by giving access to places that are hard to reach   

Forms of ground ladders
1. Wall  
2. Hook or straight ladder
3. Extension
4. Attic ladder 

• Arson – the willful and malicious burning of all kinds of buildings and structures including personal properties.
• Attempted Arson – In attempted arson, it is not necessary that there be a fire before the crime is committed. No hard and fast rule is laid down by the law as to the requirements for attempted arson. The peculiar facts and circumstances of a particular case should carry more weight in the decision of the case. Thus, a person intending to burn a wooden structure, collects some rags, soaks them in gasoline, and places them beside the wooden wall of the building. When he is about to light a match to set fire to the rags, he is discovered by another who chases him away.
- The crime committed is attempted arson because the offender begins the commission of the crime directly by overacting (placing the rags soaked in gasoline beside the wooden wall of the building and lighting a match) but he does not perform all the acts of execution (the setting of the fire to the rags) due to the timely intervention of another who chases away) the offender.
• Frustrated Arson – In frustrated arson, the fact of having set fire to some rags and jute sacks soaked in kerosene oil and placed near the partition of the entire soil of an inhabited house, should not be qualified as a consummated arson, in as much as no part of the house had begun to burn, although fire would have started in the said partition had it not been extinguished on time. The crime committed was frustrated arson.
Note : yes meron po sa book as a general rule meron safe to follow kung hindi maglalagay ng additional facts sa valdez such as sementado yan house or may bagyo o malakas yan hangin just follow the valdez principle. US VS VALDEZ pag lumabas lang yung situation na ganyan sa Question frustrated ang sagot. PERO No such thing as frustrated arson Mere preparatory acts are generally not punishable by the RPC  walang Case satin sa Pilipinas or sa RPC wala attempted at consumated lang Please correct me if I am wrong. 
• Consummated Arson – The offender did in fact set fire to the roof of the house and said house was partially burned. The crime was consummated arson, even though the fire afterward extinguished for once it has been started, the consummation of the crime of arson does not depend upon the extent of the damage caused. Setting fire to the contents of a building constitutes the consummated crime of setting fire to a building even if no part of the building was burned.

Elements of Arson 
1. Actual burning took place
2. Actual burning is done with malicious intent 
3. The actual burning is done by a person(s) legally and criminally liable 

Laws on Arson 
1. Article 320 – 326 of the Revised Penal Code – defines arson, its forms and penalties
2. PD 1613 – the law amending the law on arson; defining the prima facie evidence of arson
3. RA 7659 – An Act to Impose Death Penalty on Certain Heinous Crimes, amending for that purpose the Revised Penal Code as amended, other special laws, and for other purposes 
4. RA 6975 Sec. 54 – provides that the Fire Bureau shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires and if necessary file the proper complaint with the City/Provincial Prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case 
5. RA No. 9514 – known as the "Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008". 

What Constitutes Arson? 
1. Burning
2. Willfulness – means intentional and implies that the act was done purposely and intentionally 
3. Malice – denotes hatred or ill will or a desire for revenge; the deliberate intention of doing unjustified harm for the satisfaction of doing it 
4  Motive – the moving cause that induces the commission of a crime; something that leads or 
influences a person to do something 
5. Intent – the purpose or design with which the act is done and involves the will; an essential element of a crime, the motive is not 

Why is arson very hard to investigate? 
 Arson is one of the most difficult offenses to investigate because the arsonist can be able to set a fire and escape undetected. The fire can consume the scene and destroy much physical evidence of the offense. Harder forms of evidence are often buried in debris and grossly altered in appearance.

What Constitutes Burning?
1. The mere fact that a building is scorched or discolored by heat is not sufficient nor will the bare intention or even an attempt to burn a house amount to arson if no part of it is burned.
2. Yet, if there is actual ignition of any part of the building, arson is committed, although there is no flame or the fire immediately goes out of itself. 
3. To burn means to consume by fire and in the case of arson, if the wood is blackened but no fibers are wasted, there is no burning, yet the wood need not be in flame or blaze, and the burning of any part, however, small is sufficient to constitute arson, and if the house is charred in a single place to destroy the fibers of the wood, it is sufficient to constitute arson.

Some of the Burn Indicators 
1. Alligatoring: Checking of charred wood, giving it the appearance of alligator skin. Large rolling blisters indicate rapid, intense heat; small, flat alligatoring indicates long low heat.
2. Crazed and fractured glass: Crazing refers to the cracking of glass into smaller segments or subdivisions in an irregular pattern. Crazing into small segments or pieces suggests that the item was subjected to a rapid and intense heat build-up. It also suggests that the item may be located at or close to the point of origin. A glass item that inhibits a larger crazing pattern implies that it may have been in an area some distance away from the point of origin.
3. Depth of char: This is the depth of burning of wood – used to determine the length of burn and thereby locate the point of origin.
4. Distorted light bulbs: Incandescent light bulbs can sometimes show the direction of heat impingement. As the side of the bulb facing the source of heat is heated and softened, the gases inside a bulb can begin to expand and bubble out of the softened glass. This is traditionally been called a pulled light bulb.
5. Line of demarcation: Boundary between charred and uncharred material. On floors or rugs, a puddle–shaped line of demarcation is believed to indicate a liquid fire accelerant. In a cross-section of wood, a sharp, distinct line of demarcation indicates a rapid intense fire.
6. Sagged furniture spring: Because the heat required for furniture springs to collapse from their own weight (1, 150 degrees Fahrenheit) and because of the insulating effect of the upholstery, sagged springs are believed to be possible only in either the fire-originating inside the furniture or an external fire intensified by a fire accelerant.
7. Spalling: This is a condition ordinarily associated with masonry and cement building materials. It may appear as a distinctive discoloration of bricks or concrete; in some cases, the surface of the building may be pitted and rough. This is because an intense fire may cause the moisture inside the masonry or brick element to convert to steam.
8. Freezing of leaves: Drying of leaves in a forest fire into their position at the time of the fire. Because leaves turn during the day to face the sun, their position indicates the time of day the fire occurred.

Basis of Liability in Arson:
1. Kind and character of the building, whether of public or private ownership.
2. Its location, whether in an uninhabited place or in a populated place.
3. Extent of damage caused; and
4. The fact of its being inhabited or not.

Some of the Arson Evidence that the Investigator should seek at the Fire scene are the following: 
1. Unusually rapid spread of the fire.
2. Where it originated?
3. Separate fires – when two or more separate fires break out within a building, the fire is certainly suspicious.
4. Unusual odors – the odor of gasoline, alcohol, kerosene, and other inflammable liquids are indicated by their characteristics and oftentimes, arsonists are trapped because of these telltale signs.
5. Objects that appear to be foreign to the scene such as cans, candles, matches, explosives, electrical appliances such as irons, heating elements, clocks, radios, flammables, trailers, etc.
6. Charring patterns may indicate fire characteristics. The fact that the fire feeds on combustible while propagating itself, indicates that the char will generally be deepest from where the fire originates. When a fire is extinguished quickly, the charring is only slightly below the surface. Fire burning for a longer period will indicate a char that is deep and pronounced. These facts are most apparent in the charring of wood as a fire burns. The charring from a fire on wood looks like the hide of a black alligator. Fire extinguished quickly on wood will show a large alligatoring pattern that has not penetrated the wood to any extent. Fire burning for a long period on wood will show a small alligatoring pattern but the char will go deep into the wood.  The direction of fire can also be taken into consideration with charring. The exposed side of the combustible will have a deeper char than the unexposed side.
7. Evidence of forcible entry or lack of same may be important depending on the circumstances at the time of the fire.  If the investigator determines there was no forcible entry and finds that the building was secured before the discovery of the fire, he can reasonably suspect there is a possibility that the person who set the fire entered the building with a key.  Doors and windows showing signs of forced entry may point to arson preceded by burglary or arson by someone without a key to the premises.

Motive of Arson Can Be Established By: 

1. Economic Gain
A. Insurance fraud with the assured direct benefits:
1. Desire to move – the premises may no longer be desirable because of the condition of the building, the fact that the quarters are outgrown, or because of the locality.
2. Disposing of Merchandise – the stocks on hand may have lost value because of the seasonal nature of the business, obsolesce, scarcity of materials necessary to complete the contracts, overstock in the absence of expected order, or a changing market.
3. Property Transaction – the business itself may no longer be desirable because of impending liquidation, settlement of an estate of which it is a part, the need for cash, prospective failure, the comparatively greater value of the land, or the comparatively greater value of the insurance benefits. 
B. Profit by the Perpetrator other than the assured:
     1. Insurance agents wishing business
     2. Insurance adjusters desiring to adjust a loss by securing a contract
     3. Business competitors
     4. Persons seeking jobs as protection personnel
     5. Salvagers
     6. Contractors wishing to rebuild or wreck

2. Concealment of Crime – the arsonists may set fire to a building to conceal a projected or past crime. He may wish to divert attention to loot the burning premises or steal in other places. The burning may be to destroy evidence. 
3. Punitive Measure – An arsonist may use fire as a means of punishing another person for reasons of jealousy, hatred, or revenge.
4. Intimidation or Economic Disabling – The fire may be used as a weapon of the saboteurs, the strikers, or the racketeers to intimidate or to disable economically as a step toward forcing submission to certain demands.
5. Pyromania – This is the uncontrollable impulse of a person to burn anything without motivation. Pyromaniacs usually do not run away from the scene of the crime, usually alone and feel satisfied watching the flame 

Types of Pyromaniacs: 
A . Abnormal Youth – Epileptics, imbeciles, and morons may set fire without knowing the seriousness of the act.
B. The Hero Type – a person may set fire to a building, subsequently pretends to discover it, and turn in the alarm so that he will appear a hero to the public. A person may burn a building and endeavor to achieve spectacular rescue to attract the attention of spectators.
C. Alcoholics and Drug Addicts – persons who subject themselves to intense artificial stimulants such as narcotics sometimes develop a strong urge toward incendiaries.
D. Sexual Deviates – some sex perverts derive sexual stimulation from setting a fire and watching the flame. Frequently, he is a chronic masturbator who stimulates and enhances his sexual gratification using arson.
6. Public Disturbance – an offender may resort to arson as a means of a public disturbance because a fire attracts people and destruction causes confusion that gives rise to attendant problems that divert police attention.
7. Vandalism – This is a general term denoting intentional burning to destroy properties.

In determining motive, a fire investigator concentrates on three major factors:
1. Points of origin of the fire
2. Modus operandi of the arsonist
3. Identify persons who might benefit from the fire. 

Incendiary Materials 
Materials used to start a fire; combustible fuels: 
1. Arson Chemicals (liquids) – are incendiary materials often used by arsonists as accelerants. Possess excellent properties. Examples: alcohol, benzene, petroleum ether, gasoline, kerosene, naptha, turpentine.
2. Gases – such as acetylene, butane, CO, ethylene, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane, are common gases resulting in fires from explosions. These when mixed with air possess excellent ignition properties and when present in an enclosed area can lead to an explosion.
3. Solids – as chlorates, perchlorates, chromates, bichromates, nitrates, and permanganates – are typical families of oxidizing agents that give off oxygen on decomposition thus aiding in combustion.

Collection of Liquid Samples for Accelerant Testing
1. Liquid accelerants may be collected with
   A. New syringe
   B. Siphoning device
   C. Evidence container itself
   D. Sterilize cotton balls or gauge pads may also be used to absorb the liquid 
2. Where liquid accelerants are believed to have become trapped in porous materials such as concrete floors: 
      a. Lime 
      b. Diatomaceous earth    
      c. flour
3. Collection of liquid evidence absorbed by solid materials including soils and sand:
     A. Scooping 
     B. Scraping 
     C. drilling
     D. Core drilling
4. Collecting of Solid samples for accelerant testing
• Solid accelerants may be common household materials and compounds or dangerous chemicals. When collecting solid accelerants:
A. The fire investigator must ensure that the solid accelerant is maintained in the physical state in which is found
B. Some incendiary materials remain Corrosive and Reactive
C. Ensure the corrosive nature of these residues does not attack the packaging container 
5. Collection of Gaseous samples 

Method of Collection:
A. Use of commercially available mechanical sampling device
B. Utilization of evacuated air sampling cans. These cans are specifically designed for taking gaseous samples
C. Use clean glass bottles filled with distilled water. Distilled water is used as it has had most of the impurities removed from it. This method simply requires the investigator to refer to the evidentiary facts by which the factum probandum will be proved. Examples: the written contract; and the promissory note to prove the existence of an unpaid debt. Rid the distilled water out of its bottle in the atmosphere to be sampled. As distilled water leaves the bottle it is replaced by the gaseous sample
6. Collection of Electrical Equipment and Components
 Before wires are cut, a photograph should be taken of the wires, and both ends of the wire should be tagged and cut so that they can be identified as one of the following:
A. The device or appliance to which it was attached or from which it was severed
B. The circuit breaker or fuse number or location to which the wire was attached or from which it was severed
C. The wire’s path or the route it took between the device and the circuit protector, electrical switches, receptacles, thermostats, relays, junction boxes, electrical distribution panels, and similar equipment and components are often collected as physical evidence.