drug education and vice control

Drug Education and Vice Control Reviewer(Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

1875 - In San Francisco California, enacted an ordinance which banned the smoking of opium in opium dens.

1919 - The prohibition of alcohol commenced in Finland.

1920 - The prohibition of alcohol commenced in the United States.

1974 - The Inter-Agency Committee on Drug Prevention Education was created and played a vital role in the integration of drug abuse prevention concepts in social action programs.

1979 - The first International non-governmental organization conference was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, followed by the second which was held from November 3 to 8, 1980 in Manila. After the second conference, the Philippine Council of Non-Governmental Organizations was organized.

1988 - The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was held further bolstering anti drug laws.

Addiction - A person has an addiction when he becomes dependent on or
craves a drug and believes he needs the drug to live. All an addicted
drug user can think about is getting the next dose after getting high.

Classification of Commonly Used Drugs
   Psychoactive Drugs - These are often described as a psychotropic
   (mind affecting) or mind altering drugs. It is a chemical substance
   that changes ones thinking, feelings, perceptions and behaviors.
      a. Depressants - they are drugs that affects the central nervous
         system causing it to relax.

         Common Types of Depressants
         1. Narcotics - refers to any drugs which produces insensibility,
            stupor, melancholy or dullness of mind with delusion and
            which may be habit forming.
         2. Barbiturates - drugs that affect the central nervous system
            causing sedation.
         3. Tranquilizers - are drugs which relieves uncomfortable
            emotional feelings by reducing anxiety and promoting
         4. Alcohol - fermented or distilled liquids or drug
            containing ethanol and intoxicating substances.
         5. Solvents and Inhalants - volatile liquids that give off a
            vapor, which is inhaled producing short term excitement
            and euphoric followed by a period of disorientation. Its
            effect includes nausea, sneezing, coughing, nose bleeds,
            fatigue,lack of coordination and loss of appetite.

      b. Stimulants - chemical substances that generally speed up
         central nervous system function, resulting in alertness and

         Common Types of Stimulants
         1. Cocaine - a natural stimulants derived from the plant
            erythroxylon coca.
         2. Methamphetamine/Amphetamine - man made stimulants drugs.
         3. Caffeine - a stimulant found in coffee.
         4. Nicotine - an addictive substance usually obtained from
            cigarette smoking.

      c. Hallucinogen/Psychedelics - sometimes known as “all rounder's”
         and “mind expanders” these drugs affects the person
         perceptions, awareness, emotions and can also cause
         hallucinations as well as illusions.

         Common Types of Hallucinogens
         1. Marijuana
         2. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
         3. Ecstacy
         4. PCP, Psilocybin mushroom and peyote

Cocaine - is a stimulant of the central nervous system and an appetite
suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a euphoric
sense of happiness and increased energy. It is a quick acting drug
whose effects are rapid from the time of intake. It is legally used
in medicine as a topical anesthetic, specifically in the eye, nose and
throat surgery. It is a crystallinetropane alkaloid that is derived
from the leaves of the coca plant known as “Erythroxylon”

      Alexander Bennet - he discovered the first medical use of
      cocaine in 1873 as anesthetic.

      1879 - cocaine was used to treat morphine addiction.

      1884 - cocaine was introduced into clinical use as anesthetic.
      in Germany.

      1970 - cocaine gained popularity as a recreational drug.

      Medellin and Cali Cartel - were founded in Colombia to meet the
      new demand for cocaine. The Cali Cartel became the number one
      cocaine trafficker after the death of Pablo Escobar.

      Pablo Escobar - the founder of the Medellin Cartel who was
      killed by the police in late 1993.

Chemicals – is any substance taken into the body, which alters the
way, the mind and the bodywork.

Chemical Abuse – is an instance when the use of a chemical has
produced a negative or harmful consequence.

Codeine - Methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic,
anti-tussive and anti-diarrheal properties. It is marketed as the
salt codeine sulfate and codeinephosphate. It is also often used
as recreational drugs. This is primarily because of its easy
availability over the counter or on prescription in combination
of products.

Dangerous Drugs - are those that have high tendency for abuse and
dependency, these substances may be organic or synthetic, and pose
harm to those who use them.

Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972 - marked the government assurance to strict
policy against drug abuse. The act was subsequently amended through
Presidential Degree No. 44. Dangerous Drug Board was created to
implement the provisions of the Dangerous Drug Act as the national
policy making body and deal with other related matters on drug abuse
prevention and control.

Dangerous Drugs Board - is the policy making and strategy-formulating
body, under the office of the President, in the planning and
formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and control.

      The late President Ferdinand E. Marcos, organized the Dangerous
      Drugs Board on November 14, 1972 under the Office of the President.

      National Agencies Forming Part of the Dangerous Drugs Board
      1. DOH  - Department of Health
      2. DSWD - Department of Social Welfare and Development
      3. DECS - Department of Education, Culture and Sports
      4. DOJ  - Department of Justice
      5. DND  - Department of National Defense
      6. DOF  - Department of Finance
      7. DILG - Department of the Interior and Local Government
      8. DOLE - Department of Labor and Employment
      9. DFA  - Department of Foreign Affairs
      10.CHED - Commission on Higher Education
      11.NYC  - National Youth Commission
      12.PDEA - Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

      Permanent Consultants of the DDB
      1. Director of the NBI
      2. Chief of the PNP

      Two Regular Members of the DDB
      1. President of the IBP - Integrated Bar of the Philippines
      2. Chairman or President of a non-government organization
         involved in dangerous drug campaign to be appointed by
         the President of the Philippines.

      Oplan Iwas Droga - is the national flagship program on drug
      abuse prevention launched by the DDB in 1995.

      Barkada Kontra Droga - is a peer-based program designed as a
      preventive education and information strategy to counter the
      dangers and disastrous effects of drug abuse. It aims to empower
      individuals to be catalysts within their peer groups in
      advocating healthy, drug-free lifestyles through involvement
      in various wholesome activities.

      IDADIN - Integrated Drug Abuse Data and Information Network.
      - is an online drug data pooling and collection system that
      allows better management and assessment of the over-all drug
      demand and supply reduction efforts undertaken by the

      DDB-DIAL - (DDB Drug Information Action Line) is an action
      center created to receive reports and complaints related to
      drug abuse as well as to provide relevant information and
      assistance to the public.

      KID Listo - is a mascot created to stand as an icon or
      representation of the drug abuse prevention program. KID
      means Kalaban ng Ilegal na Droga. It was brought to different
      schools and communities all over the country to promote the
      anti-drug advocacy.

      5 Pillar Global Drug Control Approach
      1. Drug Supply Reduction
      2. Drug Demand Reduction
      3. Alternative Development
      4. Civic Awareness and Response
      5. Regional and International Cooperation

Dangerous Drugs Board Certification - is issued to attest that
substance/s manufactured or imported by companies are not included in
the list of dangerous drugs and controlled precursors and essential

      Certificate of Exemption - is issued to exempt products or
      preparations containing dangerous drugs and/or controlled
      substances that are below and above the 30% threshold from
      certain regulatory control measures.

Dependency - is the state of physical and psychological dependence,
or both, on a dangerous drug, or drugs, experienced by a person
following the use of that substance on a periodic or continuous basis.

Depressant - A depressant is a drug that slows a person down. Doctors
prescribed depressants to help people be less angry, anxious, or
tense. Depressants relax muscles and make people feel sleepy or like
their head are stuffed.

Drugs - are chemicals that affect a person in such a way as to bring
about physiological, emotional, or behavioral change.

Drug Abuse - is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the
user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are
harmful to themselves or others. Drug abuse exists when a person
continually uses a drug other than its intended purpose. This continued
use can lead to drug addiction and dependency.

      General Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse
      1. Unexpected changes of behavior
      2. Significant deterioration of grooming
      3. Continually wear long sleeve clothing to hide injection marks
      4. Wearing of sunglasses in appropriate time.
      5. Weight loss not attributed to proper physical exercises.
      6. Association with persons who are known drug abusers
      7. Unusual spending of money

Drug Addiction – a state of periodic or chronic (continuous)
intoxication (drunk) detrimental to individual and to the society
produced by the repeated consumption of drugs.
               - Drug addiction refers to the behavioral condition where
an individual’s need to obtain and use (especially, self-administer)
drugs becomes a strong fixation.
               - Drug addiction is a complex, and often chronic,
brain disease. It is characterized by excessive drug craving, seeking,
and use. Addiction is caused by brain changes caused by constant
drug use.

Drug Dependence - A state of psychic or physical dependence, or both
on dangerous drugs, arising in a person following administration or
use of a drug on a periodic or continuous basis.
                - Drug dependence describes the state when an
individual is dependent upon the drug for normal physiological

Drug Experimenter - One who illegally, wrongfully, or improperly uses
any narcotics substances, marijuana or dangerous drugs as defined not
more than a few times for reasons of curiosity, peer pressure or
other similar reasons.

Drug Syndicate - it is a network of evil. It is operated and manned
by willful criminals who knowingly traffic  human lives for the money.
Large sum of money, they can make in their illegal and nefarious trade.
The set results of their commerce are physical and mental cripples,
ruined lives, even agonizing death.

Ecstacy - In 1912 MDMA or Methylenedioxymetamphetamine was developed
in Germany as an appetite depressant by the pharmaceutical company
Merck. During the late 1970 psychiatrists and psychologist used the
drugs as treatment for emotional and psychological disorders. Among
the youth users referred it as the “sex drugs”. In its purest form
it is crystalline substance white powder with mastic odor.

Enabling - is any action taken by a concerned person that removes or
softens the negative effect or harmful consequences of drug use upon
the user. Enabling only makes thing worse. It is like fighting
fire with gasoline.

Facility Based/Treatment Based Data - are data gathered from the
residential and out-patient treatment and rehabilitation centers in
the Philippines.

Hallucinogen - A hallucinogen is a drug, such as LSD, that changes a
person's mood and makes him see, hear, or think things that aren't
really there. Hallucinogens change the way a person feels time,
making it seem to slow down. As the name implies, hallucinogens may
cause hallucinations - this is when people think they see or hear
imaginary people or things.

Harrison Act - passed in 1914, which required sellers of opiates and
cocaine to procure license. Originally intended to require paper trails
of drug transactions between doctors, drug stores and patients, it
soon became a prohibitive law.

Hashish - It is the dark brown resin that is collected from the tops of
potent Cannabis Sativa. It is at least five times stronger than crude
marijuana. Since it is stronger, the effect on the user is more intense,
and the possibility of side effects is greater. Placing the crude plant
material in a solvent makes it. The plant materials then filtered out
and the solvent is removed, yielding a gummy, resinous substance.

Heroin - is also known as Diacetylmorphine, is a semi synthetic opioid.
It mimics endorphins and creates a sense of well being upon entering
the bloodstream usually through intravenous injection. It is widely
used as a illegal drug for its intense euphoria, which often disappears
with increase tolerance.

High - A high is the feeling that drug users want to get when they
take drugs. There are many types of high, including a spacey feeling,
euphoria, or a feeling that a person  has “special powers”, such as
the ability to fly or see into the future.

Lebanon - also became the transit country for cocaine from South America
to illicit drugs markets.

Marijuana - obtained from an Indian hemp plant known as “Cannabis Sativa”
a strong, handy ,annual shrub which grows wild in temperature and
tropic regions. A mind altering substance produced from cannavis sativa,
it is used because its primary active chemical Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) induces relaxation and heightens the senses.

      Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in different forms:
      1. Marijuana or Ganja - the leaves and flowering tops of female
      2. Hashish or Charas - a concentrated resin composed of glandular
         trichomes and vegetative debris that has been physically extracted
         usually by rubbing, sifting or with ice.
      3. Kif or Kief - the chopped flowering tops of female cannabis
         plants, often mixed with tobacco,Moroccan hashish produced
         in the Rif mountains.Sifted cannabis trichomes consisting of
         only the glandular heads often incorrectly referred to as
         “Crystals or Pollen”.
      4. Bhang - a beverage prepared by grinding cannabis leaves in
         milk and boiling with spices and other ingredients.
      5. Hash Oil - an oily mixture resulting fromchemical extraction
         or distillation of theTHC- rich part of the plant.
      6. Budder - hash oil whipped to incorporate air, making it
         more like butter.

      Methods/Apparatus in Smoking Marijuana
      1. The Joint
      2. The Blunt
      3. The Hookah
      4. The Bong - is a tube with a small bowl at the end of a
         thinner tube inserted throughthe side near the base.
      5. The Waterfall
      6. The Pipe
      7. The Shotgun
      8. The Chillum
      9. The One Hitter or Bat - is a contrivance that allows the
         small amount of cannabis to be burned and inhaled in a
         single breath.

Middle East - the Bec ka Valley of Lebanon is considered to be the
biggest producer of cannabis in the Middle East.

Morphine - is a strong opiate analgesic drug and is the principal
active agent in opium. It acts directly on the central nervous system
relieving pain. It is claimed to be six (6) times more potent than
opium. It is administered into the body by means of injection. It is
used legally as an analgesic in hospital setting to relieve pain
after surgery and pain associated with trauma.

Most Commonly Used/Abused Substances In The Philippines
1. Methamphetamine hydrochloride (Shabu)
2. Cannabis Sativa or Marijuana
3. Inhalants (Contact Cement)

Motbok - an alcohol rationing system with personal ration record book
employed by Sweden from 1914 to 1955.

Narcotics - is any drug that produces sleep or stupor and relieves
pain due to its depressant effect on the central nervous system. A
term narcotic comes from the Greek word for sleep “Narkotikos".

Opium - Obtained from a female poppy plant known as “Papayer Somniferum”.
It comes from the Greek word which means “juice”. It is the original
components of Morphine and Heroin. It was known to be cultivated in
lower Mesopotamia long ago as 3400 BC. In De Medicina (30 AD), Aulus
Cornelius Celsus specified various uses for “Poppy Tears” as an
emollient for painful joints and anal crevices, in anodynes pills
promoting relief of pain through sleep.

      Opium Preparation - The smoking of opium does not involve the
      burning of the material as might be imagined. The prepared opium
      is indirectly heated to temperature at which active alkaloids,
      mainly Morphine, are vaporized.

      Opium Chemical Properties and Physiological Effects - Opium
      includes two groups of alkaloids: Phenanthrenes(including
      Morphine and Codeine) and Benzylisoquinolines
      (including Papaverine).

      Opium Medical Uses - Opium has been a major commodity of trade
      for centuries, due to the fact that it has long been used as a
      pain killer and sedative.

Presidential Proclamation No.1192 - declared the 2nd week of November
as Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Week, and celebrated every year.

Physical Dependence - An adaptive state caused by repeated drug use
that reveals itself by development of intense physical symptoms when
the drug is stopped (withdrawal syndrome).

Polydrug Abuse - Many people who abuse on drug tend to take all sorts
of drugs. Some play chemical “Russian roulettes” by taking everything
including unidentified pills. This is called polydrug abuse.

Psychological Dependence - An attachment to drug use which arises from
a drug ability to satisfy some emotional or personality need of an
individual. (Physical dependence not required but it does not seem to
reinforce psychological dependence.

RA 9165 - commonly known as The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of
2002. It took effect on July 4, 2002.

      Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) - continues as policy making body
      and it formed the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA)
      as the led agency in the enforcement of the law under the office
      of the President.

      The new law abolished the National Drug Law Enforcement and
      Prevention Coordinating Center, the PNP Narcotics Group, the
      NBI Narcotics Unit and the Customs Narcotics Interdiction Office.

      Establishing the proper intelligence network has been inherent
      task given by the law to PDEAin coordination with the following
      support units:The PNP AIDSOTF, the NBI AIDTF, the Customs Task
      Force in Dangerous Drugs and Controlled Chemicals along with
      other government and non-government entities dedicated to curb
      the drug problem.

      National Strategies Against Dangerous Drugs
      1. Supply Reduction Strategy - which refers to the concept of
         keeping the  drugs away from the potential drug users.

         Intended Programs
         a. Law Enforcement
         b. Amendments of the Law

      2. Demand Reduction Strategy - refers to the concept of keeping the
         potential users awayfrom drugs.

         Intended Programs
         a. Preventive Education
         b. Sports Development
         c. Moral and Spiritual Values Recovery
         d. Treatment and Rehabilitation

      3. International and Local Cooperation/Coordination - refers to
         an effective and efficient cooperation and coordination of all
         local and international agencies of the government.

         Intended Programs
         a. Joint Training and Exercises
         b. Intelligence Networking
         c. Interdiction Operation

Rehabilitation - is a dynamic process directed towards the changes
on the health of the person to prepare him from his fullest life
potentials and capabilities, and making him law-abiding and productive
member of the community without abusing drugs.

Shabu - Methamphetamine was discovered in Japan in 1919. This
crystalline powder is solute in water making it an ideal drug for
injection. During world War II, the drugs was used as stimulants for
combat soldiers. After the war it was regarded as a cure all for
treatment in mild depression and a good weight control substance.
In the mid 80’s it was introduced in the Philippines and has gained
popularity not only in urban areas but rural communities as well. It
is also regarded as poor man’s cocaine.

Stimulant - A stimulant speeds up a person's body and brain.
Stimulants, such as methamphetamines, have the opposite effect of
depressants. Usually stimulants make a person high energetic. When
the effects of a stimulant wear off, a person will feel tired
or sick.

Tetrahydrocannabinol - (THC) It is the psychoactive agent of marijuana.
The more THC present in marijuana, the more potent is the drug. It is
also known as the “sinister element” in marijuana. This is what causes the
“high lift” or “trip” in marijuana users.

The Golden Crescent
1. Afghanistan
2. Pakistan
3. Iran
4. India

The Golden Triangle of Drug Trafficking
1. Laos
2. Thailand
3. Burma

Tolerance - it is the increasing dosage of drugs to maintain the same

Treatment – Is a medical service rendered to a client for the effective
management of hit total conditions related to drug abuse. It deals
with the physiological without abusing drugs.

Withdrawal Period - From the point of habituation or drug dependence
up to the time a drug dependent is totally or gradually deprived of
the drug.

Related Readings:
1. Drug Education and Vice Control
2. Drug Education Review Questions