legal medicine
Legal Medicine

Legal Medicine Reviewer

Definition of Terms

Abrasion - a skin injury caused by scraping off of superficial skin due to friction against a rough surface.

Abortion - is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability.

Adipocere - a peculiar waxy substance consisting of salts and fatty acids and formed from the decomposition of corpse tissues, especially in moist habitats, also called grave-wax.

Algor mortis (Latin: algor - coldness; mortis - death) is the reduction in body temperature following death.

- Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor - stiffness, mortis - death") is one of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate.

- Importance Of Rigor Mortis
- Rigor mortis is utilized to approximate the time of death. Generalized muscular contractions occur from 3 to 6 hours until 36 hours.

Autopsy - a post-mortem examination to discover the cause of death or the extent of disease. An autopsy is derived from the Greek word "autos" - oneself and "opsis" - sight/view.

- Who are authorized to perform autopsy
      1. Health officers
      2. Medical officer of law enforcement agencies
      3. Members of the medical staff of accredited hospitals

- When Autopsy performed
      1. Written request of nearest kin to ascertain the cause of death
      2. Order of the competent court, mayor, prosecutor
      3. Written request of a law enforcement officer
      4. When required by a special law
      5. Solgen, prosecutor to determine the cause of death

- Principal Aim Of An Autopsy
      1. To determine the cause of death
      2. To determine the state of health of the person before he or she died,
      3. To determine whether any medical diagnosis and treatment before death were appropriate.

- Types of Autopsies
1. Medico-Legal Autopsy or Forensic or coroner's - autopsies seek to find the cause and manner of death and to identify the decedent.
2. Clinical or Pathological autopsies are performed to diagnose a particular disease or for research purposes.
3. Anatomical or Academic Autopsies - are performed by students of anatomy for study purposes only.
4. Virtual or Medical Imaging Autopsies - are performed utilizing imaging technology only, primarily magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).

- Forensic Autopsy - is used to determine the cause and manner of death.

Anatomy - the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.

Biochemistry - the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physico chemical processes and substances which occur within living organisms.

Cadaveric Spasm - also known as postmortem spasm, instantaneous rigor, cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of muscular stiffening that occurs at the moment of death, persists into the period of rigor mortis and can be mistaken for rigor mortis.
- Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death and is useful to ascertain the circumstances of death.

Cerebral Concussion – there is a brief loss of consciousness and sometimes memory after ahead injury that doesn’t cause obvious physical damage.

Cerebral Contusion – they are bruises to the brain, usually caused by a direct, strong blow to the head. They are more serious than concussions.

Circulatory System - also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide,
hormones, and blood cells to and from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight diseases stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.

Contempt of Court - any willful disobedience to or disregard of a court order or any misconduct in the presence of a court action that interferes with a judge's ability to administer justice or that
insults the dignity of the court. Punishable by fine or imprisonment or both.

Contusion - also called a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.

Death - Complete cessation of all cardiopulmonary (heart-lung) and/or cessation of brain activity.
Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

- Kinds of Death
1. Somatic or Clinical Death - permanent cessation of all vital bodily functions.
2. Molecular or Cellular Death - refers to the death of cells. 3 to 6 hours after cessation of life.
3. Apparent death or State of Suspended Animation - a state in which the processes of the body (such as blood circulation) stop or become very slow for a period of time while a person or animal is unconscious.

- Leading Causes of Death In The World
1. Ischaemic heart disease
2. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)
3. Lower respiratory infections
4. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

- Signs Of Death
1. Cessation of heart action and circulation
2. Cessation of respiration
3. Cooling of the body (Algor Mortis) - The temperature of 15–20 degrees Fahrenheit is considered as an ascertain sign of death.
4. Loss of motor power
5. Loss of sensory power
6. Changes in the skin
7. Changes in and about the eye - There is loss of corneal reflex

Tokyo Declaration - is a set of international guidelines for physicians concerning torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in relation to detention and imprisonment,
which was adopted in October 1975 during the 29th General assembly of the World Medical Association.

Defloration - is the laceration or rupture of the hymen as a result of sexual intercourse.

Dermis - the thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis which forms the true skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures.

Digestive System - The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body.

Dr. Pedro P. Solis - Philippines father of Legal Medicine.

Ecchymosis - a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath, typically caused by bruising.

Endocrine System - refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards a distant target organ.

Epidermis - the outermost layer of the skin of a human or other vertebrate animal.

Euthanasia - Meaning good death ( well or good ), Refers to the practice of ending life in a painless manner. The deliberate intervention was undertaken with the express intention of ending life, to relieve intractable suffering.

Excretory System - is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body.

Firearm identification - used to determine whether the gun that is subject of the investigation has the same gun used or fired.

Forensic Medicine - application of medical science to elucidate legal problems.

Forensic Science - involves the application of the sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.

Four 4 Signs of Inflammation
1. Rubor - redness
2. Calor - heat
3. Tumor - swelling
4. Dulor - pain

Fracture - comes from the Latin word “fractura” which means a break in the continuity of the bone. It is also a combination of a break in the bone and soft tissue injury.

Frostbite - injury to body tissues caused by exposure to extreme cold, typically affecting the nose, fingers, or toes and often resulting in gangrene.

Frostnip - the initial stages of frostbite.

Gynecology - the branch of physiology and medicine which deals with the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, especially those affecting the reproductive system.

Hematoma - is a collection of blood outside of a blood vessel.

Homeostasis -means remaining stable or remaining the same.

Incision - a surgical cut made in skin or flesh.

Injury -  is the damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm.

- Coup Injury - injury at the site of application of force.

- Contre-Coup Injury - injury opposite the site of application of force.

- Coup-Conre-Coup Injury - injury at the site and opposite the site of application of force.

- Locus Minoris Resistentiae - injury not at the site and not opposite the site of application of force but at the site offering least resistance.

- Extensive Injury - injury on a greater area more than the site of application of force.

Integumentary system - is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages, including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails.

Laceration - a deep cut or tear in skin or flesh. A wound that is produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of wound is often irregular and jagged.

Lazarus Syndrome - is also called Lazarus Phenomenon, is the spontaneous return of circulation after failed attempts at resuscitation.

Lazarus Sign - or Lazarus reflex is a reflex movement in brain dead patients, which causes them to briefly raise their arms and drop them crossed on their chests.

Legal Medicine - Branch of medicine which deals with the application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law and in the administration of justice. Application of medicine to legal cases.

Livor Mortis - is a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body, causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin. From the Latin word "livor" - bluish color and "mortis" - of death. Also known as post-mortem lividity.

Mayhem -  intentional maiming of another person.

Mechanical Trauma - is an injury to any portion of the body from a blow, crush, cut, or penetrating the wound.

Medical Evidence - is the means sanctioned by the rules of court of ascertaining in a judicial proceeding the truth respecting a matter of fact.

      Types of Evidence
      1. Real Evidence/Autoptic - made known to the senses
      2. Testimonial Evidence - oral testimony under oath
      3. Experimental Evidence
      4. Documentary Evidence

Medical Jurisprudence - knowledge of the law in relation to the practice of medicine.

Medico-Legal officer - (medical examiner) a physician who determines the cause of injury/death/disease by examining the patient/cadaver and testify in court to aid in the administration of justice.

Mental Deficiency – or mental retardation, is sub average intellectual ability present from birth or early infancy. Intelligence is both determined by heredity and environment. In most cases of mental
deficiency, the cause is unknown.

      Classification of Mental Deficiency
      1. Idiot – The idiot’s intelligence never exceeds that of a
         normal child over 2years old. The IQ is between 0 – 20.
         This is usually congenital.
      2. Imbecile – the imbecile’s intelligence is compared to a normal
         child from 2 –7 years old and the IQ is 20 – 40.
      3. Feeble Minded – his mentality is similar to that of a normal
         child between 7 – 12 years old and an IQ of 40 – 70.

      The Legal Importance of determining the person’s state of mind
      are the following:
      1. In Criminal law, insanity exempts a person from criminal
      2. In Civil law, Insanity is a restriction of the capacity of a
         natural person to act as provided in Article 38 of the
         Civil Code.
      3. Insanity modifies or limits the capacity of a natural person
         to act as provided in Article 39 of the Civil Code.
      4. Insanity at the time of marriage of any or both parties is a
         ground for the annulment of marriage.

Mental Health Disorders – include disturbances in thinking, emotion,
and behavior. There is a complex interaction between the physical,
psychological, social, cultural and hereditary influences.

      Factors that Contribute to the Development of Mental Disorders
      1. Heredity – the most frequent factor that contributes to
         insanity and a good history will reveal the ascendants
         afflicted with the same.
      2. Incestuous Marriage – The mental illness is accentuated when
         they are blood relative.
      3. Impaired Vitality – Stress, tension, worry,grief may
         predispose to insanity.
      4. Poor Moral Training and Breeding – Corrupt moral upbringing
         in the family due to immorality of the parents.
      5. Psychic Factors – Factors like love, hate,rage, anger,
         passion disappointments.
      6. Physical Factors
               a. Non toxic factors – exhaustion resulting from severe
                  physical and mental strain and traumatic injuries
                  to the head.
               b. Toxic factors – drug addiction,infections of
                  the brain.

      Kinds of Mental Health Disorders
      1. Psychosomatic disorders – physical disorders caused by
         psychological factors.
      2. Somatiform disorders – encompasses several psychiatric
         disorders in which people report physical symptoms but deny
         having psychiatric problems.
      3. Generalized Anxiety Disorders
      4. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder
      5. Phobic Disorders
               a. Agoraphobia
               b. Specific phobias
               c. Social phobia
      6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
      7. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
      8. Depression and Mania
      9. Bipolar Disorder
      10.Suicidal Behavior
      11.Eating Disorders
               a. Anorexia nervosa
               b. Bulimia nervosa
               c. Binge eating disorder
      12.Personality Disorders
               a. Paranoid
               b. Schizoid
               c. Histrionic
               d. Narcissistic
               e. Antisocial
               f. Borderline
               g. Avoidant
               h. Dependent
               i. Obsessive – Compulsive
               j. Passive Aggressive
               k. Dissociative
      13.Schizophrenia – a serious mental disorder characterized by
         loss of contact with reality(psychosis), hallucinations,
         delusions (false beliefs), abnormal thinking, disrupted
         work and social functioning.

               Types of Schizophrenia
               a. Paranoid - is a mental disorder characterized by
                  paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing
                  suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
               b. Hebephrenic -  it is characterized by disorganized
                  behavior and speech, as well as disturbances in
                  emotional expression.
               c. Catatonic - does not respond to external stimuli.
                  characterized by a marked lack of movement,
                  activity, or expression.

      14.Delusional Disorder
      15.Psychological Incapacity – a waste basket diagnosis because
         it is so broad a term, that it covers all possible Mental

      Some Manifestations of Mental Disorders
      1. Disorders of Cognition (Knowing)
            a. Illusion
            b. Hallucination
      2. Disorders of Memory
            a. Dementia
      3. Disorders in the Content of Thought
            A. Delusion
                  a. Delusion of grandeur
                  b. Delusion of persecution
                  c. Delusion of reference
                  d. Delusion of Self – Accusation
                  e. Delusion of infidelity
                  f. Nihilistic delusion
                  g. Delusion of poverty
                  h. Delusion of control
                  i. Delusion of depression
            B. Obsession
      4. Disorders in the trend of thought    
            Types a. Mania
                  b. Melancholia
      5. Disorders of Emotions or Feelings – a disorder in the state
         of mind, fervor, or sensibility, not in accord with reality.
      6. Disorders of volition or conation (doing)

            Conation - the mental faculty of purpose, desire, or will
            to perform an action; volition.
            Kinds of Conation
            A. Impulsion or Impulse (Compulsion) – a sudden and
               irresistible force compelling a person to the conscious
               performance of some action without motive or forethought.

               Types of Compulsion
               a. Pyromania - from the Greek word "pyr" - fire, is an
                  impulse control disorder in which individuals
                  repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately
                  start fires in order to relieve tension or for
                  instant gratification.
               b. Kleptomania - is the inability to refrain from the
                  urge to steal items and is done for reasons other
                  than personal use or financial gain.
               c. Dipsomania - an uncontrollable craving for alcoholic
               d. Homicidal impulse - occurs when one person kills
                  another suddenly and without premeditation or
               e. Sex impulse - a sudden strong and unreflective urge
                  or desire to have sex..
               f. Suicidal impulse - recurring thoughts of or
                  preoccupation with suicide.

Mortal Wound - capable of causing death.

Muscular System - is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth
and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains
posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.

Mutilation - or maiming is an act of physical injury that degrades
the appearance or function of any living body.

Nervous System - consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs,
and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the

Obstetrics - branch of medicine that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period, including care of the newborn.

Paraffin test or Dermal Nitrate test – present on the skin of the hand or site of the wound of entrance. This test is not conclusive because of fertilizers, cosmetics, cigarettes, urine and other nitrogenous compounds with nitrates will give a positive reaction. A negative test is also not conclusive. The test usually gives a positive result even after a lapse of 3days or even if the hands are subjected to ordinary washing.

Pathology - the science of the causes and effects of diseases, especially the branch of medicine that deals with the laboratory examination of samples of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic purposes.

Paulus Zacchias - (1584–1659) is the Father of Forensic Medicine.

Petechiae – a circumscribe extravasation of blood in the subcutaneous tissue.

Physical Injury - is the effect of some stimulus on the body.

Physical injuries - include those caused by mechanical trauma, heat and cold, electrical discharges, changes in pressure, and radiation.

- Mechanical trauma is an injury to any portion of the body from a blow, crush, cut, or penetrating the wound.

Physics - The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.

Physiology - the branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.

Post-Mortem - (meaning after death) internal examination of the dead to determine the cause of death.

- Ante-Mortem - before death.

Post-Mortem Caloricity - is the rise of temperature of the body after death due to rapid and early putrefactive changes, usually in the first two hours.

Post Mortem Lividity - it occurs in most extensive areas of the most dependent portions of the body.

Puncture Wound - is usually caused by a sharp pointy object such as a nail, animal teeth, or a tack. This type of wound usually does not bleed excessively and can appear to close up.

Putrefaction - or decomposition is the final stage following death, produced mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes, mostly anaerobic organisms derived from the vowel. Other enzymes are derived from fungi and sometimes from insects.

- Kinds of Putrefaction:
1. Mummification -  is the preservation of a body.
2. Saponification – also called Adipocere Formation.
3. Maceration - Softening of the tissues after death by autolysis.

Reproductive System - or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism that works together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system.

Respiratory System - (or ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved
in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment.

Scald - is a type of burn injury caused by hot liquids or gases.

Sex Crimes - generally involve illegal or coerced sexual conduct by one person towards another.

- Chaste – An unmarried woman who has had no carnal knowledge with men or that she never voluntarily had unlawful sexual intercourse. These also denote the purity of mind and innocence of heart.

Shrapnel - fragments of a bomb, shell, or other object is thrown out by an explosion.

Skeletal System - gives the body its basic framework, providing structure, protection, and movement.

Subpoena - order issued by the court to a person to appear in court.

Subpoena ad Testificandum´- is a court summons to appear and give oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial.

Surgery - is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve
bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Topinard and Rolet - two French anatomist who devised a formula for the determination of the height for male and female.

Toxicology - the branch of science concerned with the nature, effects, and detection of poisons.

Trauma - injury, a physical wound to the body caused by an external source.

Virgin – A woman who has had no carnal knowledge of man. Her genital organs have not been altered by carnal connection.

Virginity - A condition of a female who has not experience sexual intercourse and whose genital organs have not been altered by carnal connection and whose hymen is still intact.

- Kinds of Virginity
1. Moral virginity – the state of not knowing the nature of sexual life and not having experience sexual relations.
2. Physical Virginity – A condition whereby a woman is conscious of the nature of sexual life but has not experienced sexual intercourse.
3. Demi–virginity – This term refers to a condition of a woman who permits any form of sexual liberties as long as they abstain from rupturing the hymen by the sexual act. The woman allows sexual intercourse, but only inter femora or even inter labia, but not to the extent of rupturing the hymen.
4. Virgo intacta – A truly virgin woman. There is no structural change in her organ, notwithstanding the fact of previous sexual intercourse.

- Carnal Knowledge - is the act of a man in having a sexual bodily connection with a woman. There is carnal knowledge if there is the slightest penetration in the sexual organ of the female by the sexual organ of the male.

Virtuous Female - If her body is pure and if she has never had any sexual intercourse with another through her mind and heart is impure.

Vital Reaction -  the response of living body tissues to injury.

Wound - in legal medicine, it means strictly a solution of continuity. An injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impacts, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.

- Open Wound - there is a break in the continuity of the skin.
1. Abrasion - a wound consisting of superficial damage to the skin. Scratch, friction mark.
2. Bruise - is a common skin injury that results from the breakage of tiny blood vessels leaking under the skin. Blood from damaged blood vessels beneath the skin collects near the surface of the skin to appear as what we recognize as a black and blue mark. Cause by a blunt injury to the tissues which damage blood vessels beneath the surface, allowing blood to extravasate or leak into the surrounding tissues.
3. Incised Wound - caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, razor, or glass splinter.
4. Stab Wound - is a specific form of penetrating trauma to the skin that results from a knife or a similar pointed object that is "deeper than it is wide".
5. Punctured Wound - is a deep wound caused by something sharp and pointed, like a nail. The opening on the skin is small, and the puncture wound may not bleed much. Puncture wounds can easily become infected.
6. Perforating Wound - a wound with an entrance and exit opening.
7. Lacerated Wound - that occurs when skin, tissue, and/or muscle is torn or cut open. Lacerations may be deep or shallow, long or short, and wide or narrow. Most lacerations are the result of the skin hitting an object, or an object hitting the skin with force.
 8. Bite -  is a wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans.
 9. Gunshot Wound (GSW) - (Ballistic Trauma) is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.

- Barotrauma - wound/injury caused by a change in atmospheric pressure.

- Defense Wound - or self-defense wound is an injury received by the victim of an attack while trying to defend against the assailant. often found on the hands and forearms, where the victim has raised them to protect the head and face or to fend off an assault, but may also be present on the feet and legs where a victim attempts defense while lying down and kicking out at the assailant.

Forensic Medicine Definition of Terms

Aedeagus - the reproductive organ of a male insect.

Agnosia - impairment or loss associated with brain injury of the ability to recognized or comprehend the meaning of stimuli including familiar objects and and symbols.

Airways - any part of the respiratory tract thought which air passes during breathing.

Alveolar ducts - the smallest of the lungs airways that connect terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, sometimes called bronchioles.

Alveoli - microscopic air sacs in which gas exchange between the blood and the lungs occur.

Amnesia - partial or total loss of memory for past experiences.

Anarthria - loss of the ability to form words accurately caused by brain lesion or damage to peripheral nerves that carry impulses to the articulatory muscles.

Anemia - any condition in which the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, and the volume of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood are less that normal.It may result from increased destruction of red blood cells, excessive blood loss or decreased production of red cells.

Aplastic anemia - anemia caused by aplasia of bone marrow or its
destruction by chemical agents or physical factors.

Auto immune hemolytic - acquired disorder characterized by
premature erythrocyte destruction owing to abnormalities in the
individuals own immune system.

Hemolytic - anemia caused by hemolysis of red blood cells resulting
in reduction of normal red cell life span.

Iron-deficiency anemia - anemia resulting from a demand on
stored iron greater than can be met.

Megaloblastic anemia - anemia in which megaloblasts are found
in the blood, usually due to a deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12.

Microangiopathic hymolytic - a hemolytic process associated
with thrombotic thrombotic purpura, prosthetic heart valve, and
burns. It is visualized in the peripheral blood smear by fragmentation
of the red cells and other bizarre morphology.

Pernicious - a type of megaloblastic anemia due to a deficiency of
vitamin B12, directly linked to absence of intrinsic factor.

Sickle-cell - hereditary chronic anemia in which abnormal sickle or
crescent shaped erythrocytes are present.It is due to the presence
of hemoglobin S in the red blood cells.

Antibody - a protein produced for body defense in response to an antigen.An antibody is a substance that appears in the plasma or body fluids as a result of stimulation by an antigen and will react specifically with that antigen in some observable way.

Anticoagulant - a substance such as EDTA that prevent coagulation or clotting of the blood.

Antigen - a foreign substance, usually a protein, capable of stimulating an antibody response for body defense.Any substance that when introduced parenterally into an individual lacking lacking the substance,stimulates the production of an antibody that when mixed with the antibody react with it in some observable way.

Aplasia - failure of an organ or tissue to develop normally.

Asphyxia - lack of oxygen or excess of carbon dioxide in the body.Asphyxia may lead to unconsciousness, seizures, damage to various sensory systems and death.

Asthma - a chronic condition in which constriction (spasm) of the bronchial tubes occurs in response to irritation, allergy, or other stimuli.

Atherosclerosis - deposition of plaques of cholesterol esters in blood vessels, resulting in the narrowing of the vessel lumen and restricting blood flow.

Atrophy - a loss of function due to age, disuse, or disease.

Autism - mental introversion in which thinking is governed by personal needs and the world is perceived in terms of wishes rather than reality.Extreme preoccupations with one's own thoughts and fantasies.

Autopsy - a physical examination of the corpse through dissection to determine cause of death (also necropsy and postmortem).
Bestiality - is a sexual intercourse by a human being with a lower animal.

Biopsy - a small piece of tissue excised for the purpose of analysis.

Bite mark - a circular or oval patterned injury consisting of two opposing symmetrical.U-shaped arches separated at their bases by open spaces.Following the periphery of the arches are a series of individual abrasions, contusions, or lacerations reflecting the size, shape, arrangement, and distribution of the class characteristics of the contacting surfaces of the human dentition.

Bloat - the transient phase in corpse decomposition that follows the fresh phase and is characterized by excessive swelling, produced by gases trapped internally.

Blood group - an immunologically distinct, genetically determined class of human erythrocyte antigens, identified as A, B, AB, and O.A classification of red blood cell surface antigens, ABO is the best known of the blood group systems.

Blood type - a way of saying which blood group antigens are present on the persons red cells.

Bloodborne pathogen - infectious, disease causing microorganism that maybe found or transported in biological fluids.

Bloodstain - liquid blood that has dried once it has come in contact with a surface.

Body bag - a heavy waterproof bag usually closed with a zipper and used to transport a corpse.

Body dump site - the location where an offender disposes of the murder victim's body.

Bondage - the combining of sadism and masochism.

Bronchi - (singular-bronchus) large divisions of the trachea that convey air to and from the lungs.

Bronchiole - a small diameter airway branching from a bronchus.

Bronchitis - inflammation of the mucus membrane of the bronchial tubes, usually associated with a persistent cough and sputum production.

Bronchospasm - contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi causing the narrowing of the bronchi.This narrowing increases the resistance or airflow into the lungs and may cause a shortness of breath typically associated with wheezing.

Buccal coitus - (coitus per os or sin of Gomorrah) the male organ is introduced into mouth, usually of a young child.
Cadaver dog - canines specially trained to find human decomposition scent and and alert their handlers to its location.

Cadaverine - malodorous chemical compound produced during decomposition.

Cause of death - an injury or disease that ultimately lead to death of the individual, generally determined by medical examiner or coroner (pathologists).

Carrion - decaying animal flesh.

Cephalothorax - the anterior body region in some arthropods consisting of the fused head and thorax.

Cerebellum - the large brain mass located at the posterior base of the brain, responsible for balance and coordination of movement.

Cerebral contusion - bruising of brain tissue marked by swelling and hemorrhage and resulting in loss of consciousness.

Cerebral edema - swelling of the brain caused by excessive buildup of fluid in the tissue.

Cerebral infarctions - is an ischemic stroke resulting from a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain.

Cerebrum - the largest portion of the brain, include the cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex and basal ganglia)

Chronic - persistent, prolonged, repeated.

Cirrhosis - a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of the tissue, can be cause =d by long term alcoholism, viral infections, and metabolic disease.

Clitoris - erectile tissue in female analogous to male penis, located above the urethra and covered by the clitoral hood.

Clot - a thick mass of coagulated liquid, ex. blood.A blood clot is formed by a complex mechanism involving plasma protein, fibrinogens, platelets, and other clotting factors.

Coagulation - the process of stopping blood flow from a wound or by which blood forms clot.

Coagulophaty - a disease affecting the blood clotting process.

Code of Hammurabi - is the oldest known medico legal code.

Coma - state of profound unconsciousness from which the patient can not be aroused.

Concussion - sudden shock to or jarring of the brain which may or may not cause a loss of consciousness.

Conjunctiva - the delicate mucous membrane that covers the exposed surface of the eyeball and lines of the eyelids.

Contact wound - a wound that results when a small weapon is fired in contact with the skin.May divided into tight or loose contact wounds based on the amount of pressure used against the skin.

Contusion - a bruise that is either superficial or internal.An injury cause by blunt object impact without laceration with surface discoloration due to subsurface hemorrhaging.An injury to subsurface tissue caused by a blow from a blunt instrument that does not break the skin.

Convulsion - is a medical condition where the body muscle contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

Cornea - the transparent membrane that cover the colored part of the eye.

Coronary artery - an artery supplying blood to the heart.

Coroner - (medical examiner) (pathologists) an officer responsible for determining the manner and cause of death.

Corpse - a dead human body, also called cadaver.

Cunnilingus - is the oral stimulation of the female genitalia.
Death - the loss of life characterized by clinically by combined failure of respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous system activity.

Decomposition - post mortem degenerative rotting of the corpse.Chemical breakdown, separating compounds into their component parts, includes breakdown pf proteins by putrefaction, of carbohydrates by fermentation, and of fats by rancidification.

Decubitus - may be seen as a bedsore that can produce an ulcer in the body caused by lying long in one position, this pressure necrosis can be found on elderly patients.

Defense wounds - stab or incised wounds to the hands, wrists, forearms, and arms that may contain embedded fragments of the weapon.

Delirium - extreme mental excitement marked by defective perception, impaired memory, and rapid succession of confused and unconnected ideas, often with illusions and hallucinations.

Delusion - firm belief opposed to reality but maintained in spite of srong evidence to the contrary.

Diatoms - are microscopic, unicellular, silica coated algae.Presence of diatoms in tissue is a sign of ante-Morten drowning.Diatoms are examined by acid digestion technique.

Dipsomania - an irresistible desire for alcoholic drinks at periodic intervals.

Durham rule - an accused person is nor criminally responsible if his unlawful act is the product of mental disease or mental defect.
Ecchymosis - is the medical term for a subcutaneous purpura larger than 1 centimeter or a hematoma, commonly called a bruise.

Eclampsia - an acute disorder of pregnant and puerperal women, associated with convulsions and coma.

Embolism - obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign substances or by a blood clot.

Endemic - a disease that occurs continuously in a particular population but has a low mortality rate such as measles.

Endocarditis - inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart.Maybe due to invasion of microorganisms or an abnormal immunologic reaction.

Epidural hemorrhage - bleeding in the space between the dura matter and skull or wall of the vertebral canal around the spinal cord.

Epistaxis - hemorrhage from the nose, nosebleed.

Erythrocytes - red blood cells.A type of blood cell that contain a nucleus in all vertebrates but man and that has hemoglobin in the cytoplasm.

Erythroderma - intense, widespread reddening of the skin.

Esophagus - the portion of the digestive canal extending from the throat to the stomach, also referred to as gullet.

Eunuchs - male prostitutes.

Euthanasia - (mercy killing) it means producing painless death of a person suffering from hopelessly incurable and painful disease.

Exoskeleton - a skeleton on the outside of the body whose inner walls serves as a point for the attachment of muscles.
Feces - animal solid waste material discharged from the rectum through the anus.End product of digestion after absorption of nutrients and re-absorption of water.

Felacio - is the oral stimulation or manipulation of the penis either by the female or male.

Fetichism - sexual satisfaction by contact with articles of opposite sex.

Forensic medicine - is the application of medical knowledge in the administration of law and justice.

Forensic taphonomy - the study of post-mortem processes affecting human remains for the purposes of interpreting forensic data.

Fortunato Fedele - an Italian physician who in 1602 published the first book on forensic medicine.

Frigidity - is the inability to start or to maintain the sexual arousal pattern in the female.

Frotteurism - contact with other persons to obtain sexual gratification.
Gangrene - death of tissue due to lack of blood supply.

Gastritis - inflammation of the stomach, characterized by epigastric pain or tenderness, nausea, vomiting, and systemic electrolyte changes if vomiting persists.

Glaucoma - a disease of the eye characterized by abnormal and damaging high pressure in the eye, usually due to a blockage of the channel that normally allows the outflow of fluid from the eye.
Hematology - branch of biology that deals with blood and blood forming organs.

Hematoma - accumulation of blood in the tissue due to internal hemorrhaging.A tumor of blood caused by leakage from damage blood vessels, it contains enough blood to form a blood-filled space.

Hemolysis - destruction or dissolution of red blood cells in such a manner that hemoglobin is liberated into the medium in which the cells are suspended.

Hemolytic anemia - Any anemia resulting from destruction of red blood cells.

Hemophilia A hereditary blood disease characterized by impaired coagulability of the blood and a strong tendency to bleed.

Hemoptysis - Coughing and spitting of blood as a result of bleeding from any part of the respiratory tract.

Hemorrhage - Escape of whole blood from a blood vessel. Abnormal internal or external bleeding. May be venous, arterial, or capillary from blood vessels into the tissues, or into or from the body.

Herniation - Rupture of tissue into an adjacent space due to internal pressure or swelling.

Hijrahs - castrated eunuchs.

Homosexuality - means persistent emotional and physical attraction to members of same sex.

Hymen - Thin membrane, in females, that separates the external genitalia from the vagina. The outer surface is a dry, squamous epithelium, and the inner surface is a moist mucous membrane.

Hypothermia - Having a body temperature below normal.

Hypovolemia - Diminished blood volume.

Hypoxia - Condition in which below-normal levels of oxygen are present in the air, blood, or body tissues, short of anoxia.
Impetigo - Highly contagious, rapidly spreading skin disorder caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus and characterized by red blisters. Impetigo sometimes occurs as a result of poor hygiene.

Inbreeding - Reproduction between related individuals.

Incised wound - Injury produced by a sharp instrument and characterized by lack of surface abrasion and absence of bridging vessels, nerves, and smooth margins.

Incision - A wound produced by a sharp-edged instrument or object.

Ischemia - Obstruction of blood flow (usually by arterial narrowing) that causes lack of oxygen and other bloodborne nutrients.

Ischemia necrosis - Death of cells as a result of decreased blood flow to affected tissues.

Invertebrate - Any species of animal lacking a back bone.

Impotence - is the inability of a person to perform sexual intercourse.
Jaundice - yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes due to an accumulation of bile pigments (e.g., bilirubin) in the circulating blood. Another cause is liver damage caused by hepatitis.
Kleptomania - an irresistible desire to steal articles of little value.
Labia majora - Outer lips to the vagina that are covered by pubic hair after menarche (onset of menstruation).

Laceration - A wound produced by a tear in the skin due to application of blunt force in crushing or shearing.

Livor mortis - A coloration of the skin of the lower parts of a corpse caused by the settling of the red blood cells as the blood ceases to circulate.

Lymphocyte - A general class of white blood cells that are important components of the immune system of vertebrate animals.
Maggot - The larva of a higher fly. It sheds its skin twice and has three growth instars prior to pupariation. A legless larva without a well-developed head capsule.

Mandible - A mouth organ of invertebrates (especially in the arthropods and insects) used for seizing, biting, and manipulating food. With vertebrate organisms, it is recognized as the lower jaw.

Manner of death - A typology of deaths according to whether they are due to homicide, suicide, accident, or natural causes. Death occurs in one of four manners: natural, if caused solely by disease; accidental, if it occurs without apparent intent; suicidal, if caused by the deceased; and homicidal, if someone other than the deceased caused it.

Malingering - (shamming) means conscious, planned feigning or pretending a disease for the

Masochism - opposite of sadism, derived from the name of Leopold Von Sacher-Masoch, an Austrian novelist, being whipped by his wife used to be a stimulant for his literary work.

Medical jurisprudence - deals with the legal rights, privileges, duties and obligations of medical practitioner.

Meningitis - Brain infection involving an acute inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, characterized by drowsiness, confusion, irritability, and sensory impairments.

Mite - Any arthropod in the order Acari. These are very small to minute animals having four pairs of legs in the adult stage, but only three pairs in the larva. All mites have chelicerated mouth parts and lack mandibles.

Mummification - The drying, shrinking, and hardening of dead flesh due to extreme dehydration.

Mutilomania - an irresistible desire to mutilate animals.

Myiasis - The invasion of any living vertebrate animal, including people, by fly larvae, especially maggots. The description may be further refined to indicate location affected (e.g., nasal myiasis, rectal myiasis) or the predisposing cause (e.g., traumatic myiasis in a suppurating wound). Myiasis may be classified as either primary or secondary (facultative).

Myocardial ischemia - Insufficient oxygen supplies to meet the metabolic demands of heart muscles.

Myocarditis - Inflammation of the muscles of the heart.

Myoclonus - Involuntary spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of muscles.

Myoglobin - The oxygen-transporting, pigmented protein of muscle resembles blood hemoglobin in function.

Myotomy - Cutting of muscle; in forensic odontology, cutting facial muscles to release postmortem rigor mortis.
Necrophagia - necros - corpse, phagia - to eat.

Necrophilia - sexual intercourse with dead body.

Necrophilous - Having a dietary fondness for dead flesh.

Necrosis - Death of one or more cells or a portion of a tissue or organ.

Neoplasm - A new and abnormal formation of tissue such as a tumor or growth.

Neuropathy - A disorder of the nervous system; in contemporary usage, a disease involving the cranial or spinal nerves.

Neuroses - the patient suffer from emotional or intellectual disorder but does not loss touch with reality.
Osteoarthritis - deterioration in joint integrity connected with use-wear exacerbated by inflammation and related to reduction in bone density.

Osteomyelitis - Inflammation of the bone especially the marrow caused by a pathogenic organism.

Osteoporosis - Increased porosity of the bone, seen most often in the elderly.
Paedophile - (pedophile) is an adult who repeatedly engages in sexual activities with children below the age of puberty.

Paraphilias - abnormal and unorthodox sex play using unusual objects or parts of the body.

Perimortem - At or near the time of death.

Petechiae - Pinhead-sized (red) dots which are minute hemorrhages found inside the eyelids and the facial skin; considered by pathologists to be a sign of strangulation.

Phobia - it is an excessive or irrational fear of a particular object or situation.

Plasma - The liquid portion of whole blood containing water, electrolytes, glucose, fats, proteins, and gases. Contains all the clotting factors necessary for coagulation but in an inactive form. Once coagulation occurs, the fluid is converted to serum.

Pneumonitis - Inflammation of the lungs.

Postmortem - After death, occurring after death, or pertaining to a postmortem examination, an autopsy.

Postmortem - artifact Alteration to the body that occurs after death that is not related to antemortem injury.

Postmortem interval - The period of time between death and corpse discovery.

Priapism - painful penile erection in absence of sexual desire.

Pseudo-malingering - A phenomenon whereby a mentally ill individual feigns the mental illness he or she actually has. The behavior is considered a temporary ego-supportive device that allows the individual to feel he or she has control over the illness.

Psychological autopsy - An attempt to determine the mode of death (whether an accident, suicide, homicide, or natural causes) by an examination of what was known about the deceased.

Psychopath - a person who is neither insane nor mentally defective but fails to conform to normal standards of behavior.

Psychoses - they are characterized by withdrawal from reality, living in a world of fantasy.

Pulmonary edema - Accumulation of extra vascular fluid in the lungs that impairs gas exchange; usually due to either increased intravascular pressure or increased permeability of the pulmonary capillaries.

Putrifaction - The foul-smelling, anaerobic decomposition of moist or wet organic matter by microorganisms. The breakdown of tissues, particularly proteins, due to enzyme action.

Pyromania - sexual stimulation while seeing flames or destruction of buildings.
Rigor mortis - The stiffness of the body after death that helps in reconstructing the time at which death occurred. The progressive rigidity of a corpse following death, caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in dying muscle tissues. This is a temporary condition lasting 12 to 36 h.
Sadism - sexual gratification is obtained or increased from acts of physical cruelty or causing of pain upon one's partner.The term is derived from the name of a French nobleman Marquis de Sade, infamous for his crimes and writings.Many of his stories were about sexuality, cruelty, and torture.

Saponification - The conversion of corpse body fat into a curdlike foul-smelling product called adipocere

Saprophagous - Feeding on dead or decaying plant or animal material, such as carrion, corpses, dung, or rotting wood.

Satyriasis - incessant sexual desire.

Scoliosis - A lateral curvature of the spine.

Scurvy - A deficiency disease characterized by hemorrhagic manifestations and abnormal formation of bones and teeth.

Sepsis - Pathologic state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their poisonous products in the bloodstream.

Septicemia - Bacteria in the blood system with signs and symptoms of disease.

Sexual oralism - it is the obtaining of sexual pleasure from the application of the mouth to the sexual organs.

Sodomy - is anal intercourse between two males or between a male and female.It is also called buggery.It is also called gerontophilia when the active agent is an adult and paederasty, wen the passive agent is a young boy who is known as catamite.
Tachycardia - Rapid heartbeat (typically greater than 100 beats per minute).

Tachypnea - Rapid breathing.

Tattooing - A characteristic pattern in the skin caused by particles of
unburned and partially burned powder from a shotgun blast at very close range.Also may be called stippling.

Tetany - Condition marked by involuntary muscle contractions or spasms.

Trauma - An injury that is the result of any force such as blunt, sharp, or penetrating.

Transvestism - trans - opposite, vesta - clothing of eonism.The term is derived from the name of Chevelier d'Eon Beamont, a Frenchman.It is usually found in the males who derived sexual pleasure by wearing female dress.

Tribadism - female homosexuality.Sexual gratification of a woman is obtained by another woman by simple lip kissing,generalized body contact, deep kissing, manual manipulation of breast and genitalia, genital apposition, friction of external genital organs, etc.In some case, artificial penis or phallus may be used.

Throttling - is manual strangulation.
Undinism - sexual pleasure by witnessing the act of urination.
Vasodilation - Increased diameter of the blood vessels.

Voyeurism - (scoptophilia) peeping tom, sexual enjoyment by watching.
Wheezing - Breathing noisily and with difficulty; usually a sign of spasm or narrowing of the airways.
Zenana - eunuch with intact genitalia.