CFLM 1  - Leadership, Decision-Making, Management, and Administration

Syllabi/Table of Specifications

The registered criminologist can perform the competencies under the following sub-topics:

1. Define and identify the theories, characteristics, and principles of leadership, leadership and management styles, leaders and managers qualities, leadership and management.

2. Apply and appraise the principles, theories, and functions of police administration, police management, efficient management, division of work, authority and responsibility, unity of command and scalar chain, the 

3. Apply, evaluate, and design problem-solving and decision-making factors, information, characteristics, principles, and guidelines.  


The  Administrative Theory is based on the concept of departmentalization, which means the different activities to be performed for achieving the common purpose of the organization should be identified and be classified into different groups or departments, such that the task can be accomplished effectively.

The administrative theory is given by Henri Fayol, who believed that more emphasis should be laid on organizational management and the human and behavioral factors in management. Thus, unlike the scientific management theory of Taylor where more emphasis was on improving the workers' efficiency and minimizing the task time, here the main focus is on how the management of the organization is structured and how well the individuals therein are organized to accomplish the tasks given to them.

The other difference between these two is, that the administrative theory focuses on improving the efficiency of management first so that the processes can be standardized and then moves to the operational level where the individual workers are made to learn the changes and implement those in their routine jobs. In the case of the scientific management theory, it emphasizes improving the efficiency of the workers at the operating level first which in turn improves the efficiency of the management. Thus, the administrative theory follows the top-down approach while the scientific management theory follows the bottom-up approach.


1. Division of Work: The work should be divided among the individuals based on their specializations, so as to ensure their full focus on the effective completion of the task assigned to them.

2. Authority and Responsibility: The authority and responsibility are related to each other. Authority means the right to give orders while responsibility means being accountable. Thus, to whomsoever the authority is given to exact obedience must be held accountable for anything that goes wrong.

3. Discipline: The individuals working in the organization must be well-disciplined.  Refers to the obedience, behavior, and respect shown by the employees towards others.

4. Unity of Command: According to this principle, an individual in the organization must receive orders from only one supervisor. In case an individual has a reporting relationship with more than one supervisor then there may be more conflicts with respect to whose instructions to be followed.

5. Unity of Direction:  Unity of direction means,  all the individuals or groups performing different kinds of tasks must be directed towards the common objective of the organization.

6. Subordination of Individual to General Interest: According to this principle, the individual and organizational interests must coincide to get the task accomplished. The individual must not place his personal interest over the common interest, in case there is a conflict.

7. Remuneration of Personnel: The payment methods should be fair enough such that both the employees and the employers are satisfied.

8. Centralization: Fayol defines centralization as the means of reducing the importance of a subordinate’s role in the organization, and the extent to which the authority is centralized or decentralized depends on the organization type in which the manager is working.

9. Scalar Chain: This means there should be a proper hierarchy in the organization that facilitates the proper flow of authority and communication. It suggests that everyone must know from whom he shall get instructions and to whom he is accountable. Also, the communication either going up or down must pass through each level of authority. In certain circumstances where the quick flow of communication is required, the rigidity of a scalar chain can pose problems. Thus, Henry Fayol has suggested “gangplank” which means anybody in the hierarchy can interact with each other irrespective of their authority levels.

10. Order: This principle is related to the systematic arrangement of things and people in the organization. This means every material should be in its place, and there should be a place for every material. Likewise, in the case of people, the right man should be in the right job.

11. Equity: All the employees in the organization must be treated equally with respect to justice and kindliness.

12. Stability of Tenure: The employees should be retained in the organization, as new appointments may incur huge selection and training costs.

13. Initiative: The manager must motivate his subordinates to think and take action to execute the plan. They must be encouraged to take initiative as this increases the zeal and energy among the individuals.

14. Esprit de Corps: This means “unity is strength”. Thus, every individual must work together to gain synergy and establish cordial relations with each other. 

Thus, Henry Fayol emphasized the managerial activities and classified these further into five sub-activities Viz. Planning, Organizing, Directing, coordinating, and controlling, and for a better understanding of these he proposed 14 principles of management.

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