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What is the doctrine of implied conspiracy?

The doctrine of implied conspiracy holds two or more persons participating in the commission of a crime collectively responsible and liable as co-conspirators although absent any agreement to that effect, when they act in concert, demonstrating unity of criminal intent and a common purpose or objective. The existence of a conspiracy shall be inferred or deduced from their criminal participation in pursuing the crime and thus the act of one shall be deemed the act of all.

State the concept of "implied conspiracy" and give its legal effects?

An "implied conspiracy" is one which is only inferred or deduced from the manner the participants in the commission of crime carried out its execution. Where the offenders acted in concert in the commission of the crime, meaning that their acts are coordinated or synchronized in a way indicative that they are pursuing a common criminal objective, they shall be deemed to be acting in conspiracy and their criminal liability shall be collective, not individual.

The legal effects of an "implied conspiracy" are
1. Not all those who are present at the scene of the crime will be considered co-conspirators;
2. Only those who participated by criminal acts in the commission of the crime will be considered as co-conspirators;
3. Mere acquiescence to or approval of the commission of the crime, without any act of criminal participation, shall not render one criminally liable as co-conspirator.

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