questioned document examination
Questioned Document

Questioned Document Reviewer (Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

3rd Century A.D. - The earliest handwriting examination cases reported.

6th Century - The Roman Emperor Justinian dictated guidelines for the use of handwriting comparisons in Roman courts.

1873 - the year in which the first commercially successful typewriter was introduced.

Addition - inserting or modifying clause or sentence in a document to alter its meaning.

Substitution - replacing original entries or writing with another.

Albert Sherman Osborn - became the pre-eminent American pioneer in the field when he authored "Questioned Documents," a seminal work in scientific document analysis that remains in print and in use. He founded the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners in 1942.

Alfred Dreyfus - A French army officer, accused of treason through letters found attempting to sell French secrets to Germany. Later found that Dreyfus did not write the letters.

Alignment - relation of successive characters or letters of a word, signature, or line of writing to an actual or imaginary baseline.

Alphabet - is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic
significant sounds) of the spoken language.

Alteration - any change made on a document before, during, or after its original execution.

Methods of Alteration 
      1. Mechanical
      2. Chemical

Arrangement - habitual placing and positioning of letters and words.

Beaded - preliminary embellished initial stroke which usually occurs in capital letters.

Beard - is the rudimentary initial upstroke of a letter.

Blunt - the beginning and ending-stroke of a letter.(Without hesitation)

Body - The main portion of the letter, minus the initial of stroke. Terminal strokes and the diacritic, of any. Ex: the oval of the letter “O” is the body, minus the downward stroke and the loop.

Bowl - a fully rounded oval or circular form on a letter complete into “O”.

Buckle/Buckleknot - a loop made as flourished which is added to the letters, as in the small letter “k & a”, or in capital letters “A”, “K”, “P”. The horizontal end sloop stroke is often used to complete a letter.

Cacography - a bad writing.

Calligraphy – the art of beautiful writing.

Casting - was one method used to produce counterfeit coins in Britain and America during the colonial period. Basically, it consisted of melting metal and then pouring the molten liquid into a mold having a reservoir in the shape of a coin.

Class Characteristics - common to a group of people. Learned from school or from an individual's parent or tutor. Class Characteristics are similarities between individuals who learned the same type of writing systems.

Individual Characteristics - highly personal or peculiar to a particular writer. Influenced by habit, mindset, personal preference. It identifies an individual from other writers.

Types of Individual Characteristics
1. Skill level - the way a writing looks.
2. Slant - is the angle of writing.
3. Form - is the way a writer makes a letter or movement of letters. Most basic individual characteristics are very important to QDE.
4. Movement - is the way a pen moves to make a mark or form a letter. This can help distinguish the difference in form. 2 letters can be the same, but made differently.
5. Proportions - is the symmetry of an individual letter.
6. Height - is comparing the height of one letter to another. Height and proportions are usually habits found in a specific writer.
7. “I” Dot
8. “t” Crossing
9. Loops - are similar to proportions.
10. Pressure - is the difference in ink or pencil in width or shade. Helps show the direction of movement.
11. Baseline Alignment - The value of this shows the questioned writing in correlation to the baseline. Helps QDE examiners determine whether the writing was altered or is consistent with the rest of the writing or other examples.
12. Pen Lifts - Pen lifts are when the pen or pencil is lifted from the paper and reapplied to finish a word or sentence.
13. Speed - The speed of a writer is a key indicator for QDE in the examination process. Fast and slow speeds are difficult to duplicate leaving behind inconsistencies in the writing.
14. Embellishments - decorate writing. Usually found at the beginning of a word, but can be seen in other places.
15. Entry/Exit Strokes -  is the way a writer begins certain letters or words and can be very specific to an individual. Also includes the idea of connecting stokes.
16. Retracing - is considered fixing a portion of writing that is not readable or pleasing to the writer. In some cases, this can indicate forgery but is very common in normal handwriting to retrace letters or words.
17. Spelling - is an individual characteristic because of education or habits and can be an easy fix to eliminate or pinpoint suspects.
18. Spacing - is the area between letters or words and is usually specific to the writer.
19. Format - is the habit that a writer uses to depict simple things like; Dates, numbers, and abbreviations.
Example: The way people write checks
20. Case - is a characteristic of a writer who might use upper case letters where a lower case should be present.

Coin Clipping - shaving off a small portion of a precious metal coin for profit.

Coin Mutilation - cutting a portion of a coin.

Collected Standard - (Procured Standard)obtained from files executed in the course of everyday routine.

Requested Standard - document requested by an investigator for the purpose of comparative examination.

Color Shifting Ink - ink that changes color when viewed from different angles.

Connections - links that connect a letter with the one following it.

Counterfeiting - imitate fraudulently for gain. To make a copy of, usually with the intent to defraud; forge: counterfeits money.

Cuneiform - denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly on clay tablets.

Cutting - skillful cutting away of some portions and then inserting new ones to fill the gap.

Descender - the opposite of ascender, the lower portion of a letter.

Diacritic - “t” crossing and dots of the letters “i” and “j”. The maters of the Indian script are also known as diacritic signs.

Disguised Writing - is any deliberate attempt to alter one's handwriting to prevent recognition.

Document - any material that contains marks, symbols, or signs either visible, partially visible, or invisible that may present or ultimately convey a meaning or message to someone.

Document May Be Questioned For Its 
      1. Authenticity
      2. Identity
      3. Origin
      4. Relation among its parts
      5. Relation to other things

Types of Document Examination
      1. Handwriting Comparisons
      2. Ink Examinations
      3. Indented Writing
      4. Alterations
      5. Paper Analysis
      6. Photocopy Analysis
      7. Typewriting

Public Document - any instrument notarized by a notary public or competent public official with solemnities required by law.

Official Document - any instrument issued by the government or its agents or its officers having the authority to do so and the offices, which per their creation, they are authorized to issue and be issued in the performance of their duties.

Private Document - every deed or instrument executed by a private person without the intervention of a notary public or of any person legally authorized, by which documents, some disposition, or agreement is proved, evidenced, or set forth. 

Ending/Terminate Stroke of Toe - the end stroke of a letter.

Eye/Eyelet/Eyeloop - a small loop or curve formed inside the letters. This may occur inside the oval of the letters “a, d, o”.
- The small loop formed by strokes that extend in divergent directions as in small letters.

Erasure - the removal of writing, recorded material, or data.

EURion Constellation - is a pattern of symbols incorporated into many banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image.

Exemplars -  Handwriting used as a standard for comparison with the document in question. Known authentic writing samples.

Two Types of Exemplars
1. Requested Writings - (Dictated) are writing samples taken from someone for the purpose of comparison with a questioned document.
2. Non-Requested Writings - (Undictated)(Collected) These are examples of the subject's writings that are taken in the normal course of business or personal transactions.

Foot - the lower part which rests on the baseline. The small letter “m” has three feet, and the small letter “n” has two feet.

Forensic Document Examination - the practice of applying document examination to the purposes of the law.

Graphology - is the study of handwriting to identify the writer's personality traits.

Graphologist - Profiles character or personality by drawing conclusions from certain types of characteristics in the handwriting sample.

Handwriting  - refers to a person's writing created with a writing utensil such as a pen or pencil.

Handwriting Comparison Characteristics
      1. Spacing between letters
      2. Spacing between words
      3. Relative proportions between letters and within letters
      4. Individual letter formations
      5. Formations of letter combinations
      6. The overall slant of the writing
      7. Connecting strokes
      8. Pen lifts
      9. Beginning and ending strokes
      10. Unusual flourishes
      11. Pen pressure

Character of handwriting
1. No single handwriting characteristic can in itself be taken as the basis for a positive comparison.
2. The final conclusion must be based on a sufficient number of common characteristics between the known and questioned writing samples.
3. There are no hard and fast rules for a sufficient number of personal characteristics; it is a judgment call made by the expert examiner in the context of each case.

Two Groups of Muscles Involve in Handwriting:
1. Extensor muscles - push up the pen to form the upward strokes.
2. Flexor muscles -which push the pen to form the downward strokes.

Habits - any repeated elements or details which may serve to individualize writing.

Henry Mill - was an English inventor who patented the first typewriter in 1714.

Hesitation - the term applied to the irregular thickening of ink which is found when writing slows down or stops while the pen takes stock of the position.

Hiatus/Pen Jump - a gap occurring between a continuous stroke without lifting the pen. Such an occurrence usually occurs due to speed. The hiatus may also be stated as a pen jump.
– May be regarded also as a special form of pen lift. 
– May be regarded as a special form of pen lift distinguish in ball gaps in the appearance of the writing.

Hieroglyph - (Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in a form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptians are also sometimes called "hieroglyphs".

Hologram - a three-dimensional image formed by the interference of light beams from a laser or other coherent light source.

Hook - it is a minute curve or an ankle which often occurs at the end of the terminal strokes.  It also sometimes occurs at the beginning of an initial stroke. The terminal curves of the letter “a”, “d”, “n”, ‘m”, “p”, and “u”. are the hook. In the small letter “w” the initial curve is the hook.
– The minute involuntary talon-like formation found at the commencement of an initial upstroke or the end terminal stroke. 

Hump - the upper portion of its letter “m”, “n”, “h”, “k”
– The rounded outside of the top of the bend stroke or curve in small letters.

Indented Writing - (second-page writing), is the impression from the writing instrument captured on sheets of paper below the one that contains the original writing.
Electrostatic Detection - indented writing may be recovered using this method.

Ink - a colored fluid or paste used for writing, drawing, printing, or duplicating.

Microspectrophotometer - A nondestructive approach to comparing ink lines. It is accomplished with a visible-light microspectrophotometer.

Thin-layer chromatography is also suitable for ink comparisons.

Instrument Used In A Questioned Document QD Laboratory
1. Stereo Microscope - The stereo, stereoscopic, or dissecting microscope is an optical microscope variant designed for low magnification observation of a sample, typically using light reflected from the surface of an object rather than transmitted through it.
2. Light Microscope - A light microscope works like a refracting telescope except that the object is very close to the objective lens.
3. Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) - is an apparatus that can:
a. Analyse and compare inks: reveal alterations on a document;
b. Visualize security features printed into papers;
c. Use the spectrometer and various built-in light sources for U.V., visible spectrum, and I.R. examinations of ink and documents to visualize fluorescence; examination with transmitted light or low angle light, and recording/comparing differences in reflectance, and absorption under variable
wavelengths of light and with various filters that will discriminate between different inks.
4. Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) - is an apparatus which can:
a. Produce an evidential record of any indentations (writing impressions) that are present upon a page, resulting from previous pages of overwriting in a writing pad, notebook, or upon a letter placed inside an envelope that was then addressed.
b. Visualise and record any other transmitted impression, such as from a machine postal stamp upon an envelope; or visualize and record any paper edge impressions of a page portion that was torn from a page within a note-pad, even if the page was removed sometime later.

Interlineation - insertion between lines or paragraphs.

Juxtaposition - an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.

Knob - the extra deposit of ink in the initial and terminal stroke due to the slow withdrawal of the pen from the paper (usually applicable to foundation pen).

Ligature/Connection - the stroke that connects two strokes of a letter. 
– characterized by connected strokes between letters.

Lindbergh Baby Case - a sensational case of kidnapping for ransom resulting in the murder of a baby where questioned document examination is the centerpiece of the investigation and the reason for the arrest of the perpetrator.

Long Letter - those letters with both upper and lower loops.

Loop - An oblong curve such as found on the small letter “f”, “go”, and “l” and the letters stroke  “f”  has two. A  loop may be blind or open.  A blind loop is usually the result of the ink having filled the open space.

Majuscule - A capital letter.

Minuscule - A small letter.

Manuscript - is any document written by hand, as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way.

Microprinting - is one of many anti-counterfeiting techniques used most often on currency and bank checks, as well as various other items of value. Microprinting involves printing very small text, usually too small to read with the naked eye, onto the note or item.

Movement Impulses - this refers to the continuity of stroke force writing usually produced by disconnected and broken movement, more motion, or movement impulses than genuine writing.

Obliteration - obscuring a document by a series of x-types, haphazard, lines, blots, and smears.

Official Document - A type of document which bears the seals of the office issuing and the authorized signature to such document.

Offset printing - or web offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
Letterpress printing - is a technique of relief printing using a printing press. A worker composes and locks movable type into the bed of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to transfer the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper.

Oval - The small letter stroke. “a”, “d”, “g”, & “q” contain the oval letter “a”, and “t”, while coming down.

Patching - retouching or going back over a defective portion of a written stroke. Careful patching is a common defect in forgeries.

Pellegrino Turri - an Italian inventor, invented a mechanical typing machine, one of the first typewriters in 1801 for his blind lover Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzano. He also invented carbon paper to provide the ink for his machine.

Pen Emphasis - This refers to the sudden increase in pressure or the intermittently forcing of the pen against the paper surface with an increase in speed.

Pen Lift - is the practice of lifting the tip of a pen from a writing surface. It comes in the form of a disconnection between letters and letter combinations.

Pen Pressure - the proportions of strokes to each other in width as affected by shading and by unconscious emphasis.

Penmanship - is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument. The art or practice of writing with a pen.

Pictograph - a pictorial symbol for a word or phrase. Pictographs were used as the earliest known form of writing, examples having been discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia from before 3000 BC.

Questioned Document - is any signature, handwriting, typewriting, or other mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute or doubtful.

Most Common Questioned Document
      1. Letters
      2. Checks
      3. Drivers License
      4. Contracts
      5. Wills
      6. Voters Registration
      7. Passports
      8. Petitions
      9. Threatening Letters
      10. Suicide Notes
      11. Lottery Tickets

Rules for Collecting Questioned Documents
1. Original Document Preferred
2. QDE must mark all evidence - initial and date. If a document cannot be marked it should be placed in an envelope and sealed with the initial and date.
3. Maintain chain of custody
Questioned Document Examination - The scientific methods of identification and examination of questionable documents, handwriting examination, detection of forgery, falsification, and counterfeiting of documents which stress the procedures of restoring and deciphering erasures and obliteration; examination of documents utilizing visible light, ultra-violet light and ultra-red radiation and colored powders; recognition and selection of standards; and examination of questionable typewriting, computerized documents and other forms of modern printing.

Standard Document – Are condensed and compact set of authentic specimens that is adequate and proper and should contain a cross-section of the material from its source. They are used by the document examiner as the basis for his identification or non-identification of the questioned document.

Retracing - any writing stroke that goes back over another writing stroke.

Rhythm - the balanced quality of movement, producing a natural result not constrained nor artificial.

Rubric and Embellishment - the additional and unnecessary stroke incorporated in writing for decorative or ornamental purposes.

Samuel Willard Soulé - (January 25,1830-July 12,1875) along with Christopher Sholes and Carlos Glidden invented the first practical typewriter at a machine shop located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
in 1869.

Security fibers - are embedded in the paper during manufacture and are non-reproducible.

Security Thread - is a security feature of many banknotes to protect against counterfeiting, consisting of a thin ribbon that is threaded through the note's paper.

Shading and Pen Position - the increase in width of stroke brought by variations in writing pressure.

Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer - the first commercially successful typewriter.

Shoulder - outside portion of the top curve, the small letter “m” has three shoulders and the small letter “n” has two,  the small letter “h” has one shoulder.

Signature - a person's name written in a distinctive way as a form of identification in authorizing a cheque or document or concluding a letter. From the latin word "signare" which means "to sign".

Kinds of Signature
1. Formal Signature - signature used on official documents such as will or deed of sale.
2. Informal Signature - signature used in routine correspondence such as personal letters and other documents where you want the reader to recognize the signature but the exact spelling of the name isn’t important.
3. Stylistic Signature - signature used in signing checks, credit card receipts, etc. This is also like the famous “physician’s signature” on a prescription. It is often highly stylistic and looks like a scribble with little that would be recognizable as a signature.

Signature Forgery - refers to the act of falsely replicating the signature of another person.

Spur - is a stroke that begins at the top right of a letter moves left, and may form a link to the preceding letter.
- refers to short, horizontal beginning strokes.

Staff - any major long downward stroke of a letter than is the long downward stroke of the letter “b”, “g”.

Stem or Shank - the upright long downward stroke that is the trunk or stalks, normally seen in capital letters.

Standard Document - These are sets of authentic documents which will serve as a basis for comparison with other matters in question.

Popular Methods of Forging Signature
1. Freehand Method -  whereby the forger, after careful practice, replicates the signature by freehand. Although a difficult method to perfect, this often produces the most convincing results.
2. Trace-Over Method - the paper containing the genuine signature is placed on top of the paper where the forgery is required. The signature is traced over, appearing as a faint indentation on the sheet of paper underneath. This indentation can then be used as a guide for a signature.

Methods of Signature Tracing
1. Carbon Outline Method - carbon paper inserted between original and false document.
2. Indentation Process - the original document is placed over the false one under it, to be traced later using a pen or pencil.
3. Transmitted Light Process - a light source is placed under a light, the original document is placed under the false one. The light source will illuminate both documents so that the writings on the original document will be seen and traceable on the false one.

      Characteristics That May Suggest the Presence of Forgery
      1. Shaky handwriting
      2. Pen lifts            
      3. Signs of retouching
      4. Letter proportions
      5. Very close similarity between two or more signatures

Kinds of Forgery of Signatures
1. Simple Forgery - (spurious forgery) signing of a document in his own or in modified handwriting. Easy to detect once standards of genuine signatures are obtained.
2. Simulated Forgery - (freehand forgery) the copying or imitation of a signature.

      Indicators of Forgery 
      1. Blunt starts and stops
      2. Pen lifts and hesitations
      3. Tremor
      4. Speed and Pressure
      5. Patching
Slant - a slope of writing to the baseline.

Spacing -  is a blank area devoid of content, serving to separate words, letters, numbers, and punctuation.

Striking - (stamping) making an impression of a coin on a metal blank by pressure using steel dies.

Superimposition - placing or laying off one document over another in a way that it appears as a single image. The placement of an image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually
to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to conceal something.

Terminal - The end of a writing stroke.

Initial Stroke - the beginning of a writing stroke.

Tick/Hitch - any short stroke, which usually occurs at the top of the letters.

Tremor - deviation from a uniform stroke brought about by lack of smoothness.
- a writing weakness portrayed by irregular shaky stroke is described as a writing tremor.

Kinds of Tremors 
1. Genuine Tremors - caused by age, illiteracy, and weakness.
2. Tremor of Fraud

Typebar - one of the bars on a typewriter that bears type for printing.

Typewriter - is a mechanical or electro-mechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type through keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer
ink or carbon impressions onto the paper.

Carriage Return -  referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter. It was used after typing a line of text and caused the assembly holding the paper (the carriage) to return to the right so that the machine was ready to type again on the left-hand side of the paper (assuming a left-to-right language).

Typeface - the printing surface of the type block. The most popular types are pica and elite.

Pica - 10 characters per inch

Elite - 12 characters per inch

Types of Typewriters
1. Keyboard typewriter - is the simplest kind of typewriter, functioning from the QWERTY formation of letters and having a type (a metallic cast with letters molded into it) that's attached by a bar or rod.
2. Single-element typewriter - enables the user to print data in different languages or fonts. Instead of using a bar mold for the type (called a type bar), single-element typewriters use type wheels, type sleeves, or type shuttles for molds. The most popular single element was the Hammond type-shuttle
typewriter produced in 1884.
3. Type-bar typewriters, as the name suggests, use type bars, or molds of iron shaped like bars, for their types. Type bars are the most common kind of typewriter and the original invented by Sholes, Glidden, and Soule was a type-bar typewriter.
4. Index typewriters - were far less costly in the pre-modern era, but also less useful. An index typewriter required that users first input what key they would like, and then perform another action (usually pressing a lever) to print the letter to a page. Usually, these didn't use type bars, but instead
type wheels, type shuttles, type plates, and even more novel types. Examples of the index typewriter are the American Visible, first manufactured in 1901, and the French Virotyp of 1914.
5. Teletype Typewriters - (Teleprinters) came on the scene in the mid-1950s and peaked in popularity in the 1960s. They were used mostly for communicating information from point to point, much as modern fax machines are used. Most non-IBM computers had teletype terminals. Teletypes were completely mechanical and thus required regular lubrication; they didn't have type bars in the strictest sense and instead used plastic gears to print messages.
6. Electric Typewriters - The most modern typewriter, still used today, is the electric typewriter, most notably IBM models such as the Selectric. The electric typewriter minimized the force necessary to print out a message by using a motor and type ball to print letters on paper.

Vignette - a small illustration or portrait photograph that fades into its background without a definite border.

Watermark - a faint design made in some paper during manufacture that is visible when held against the light and typically identifies the maker.

Writing - is a medium of communication that represents language through the inscription of signs and symbols.

Kinds of writing:
1. Cursive - connected; writing in which one letter is joined to the next.
2. Script - separated or printed writing.

Cursive Writing - also known as script, joined-up writing, joint writing, running writing, or handwriting is any style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner, generally to make writing faster.

Writing Speed - Classified Into 4 Divisions
1. Slow and Drawn
2. Deliberate
3. Average
4. Rapid

Writing Condition - It refers to the factor that relates to the condition of the writer as well as the circumstances under which the writing was prepared.

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