Naval Architect and Marine Engineer Board Exam Result September 2014

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Naval Architect / Marine Engineer

Naval Architect
Marine Engineer
Board Exam Result
September 2014

Update: October 2019 Naval Architect Board Exam Result

The result of the September Naval Architect and Marine Engineer
Licensure Examination has been released.

105 took the exam but only 57 passed.

Only Four (4) Schools participated in the exam, namely:
1. Mariners Polytechnic College Foundation - Baras
         Total Number of Examinees - 10
         Number of those who passed - 3
         Passing Percentage - 30%
2. NAMEI Polytechnic Institute
         Total Number of Examinees - 46
         Number of those who passed - 27
         Passing Percentage - 58.70%
3. University of Cebu
         Total Number of Examinees - 37
         Number of those who passed - 22
         Passing Percentage - 59.46%
4. University of Perpetual Help System Dalta Las Pinas
         Total Number of Examinees - 12
         Number of those who passed - 5
         Passing Percentage - 41.67%

The Following are the succesful examinees:

         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
17 DELA CRUZ, NORWIN DURAN - 7th Placer 
         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
         (University of Cebu)
         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
35 MAALA, RODEL DALAWAMPU - 1st Placer (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)
         (Mariners Polytechnic College Foundation-Baras)
         (University of Cebu)
         (University of Cebu)
47 RAMOS, EDMUND TEJADA - 2nd Placer
         (NAMEI Polytechnic Institute)

Police Photography Reviewer

police photography reviewer
Police Photography

Police Photography Reviewer
Definition of Terms

Forensic Photography Reviewer
Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) - a great authority on optics in the Middle
Ages who lived around 1000 AD, invented the first pinhole camera,
(also called the Camera Obscura } and was able to explain why the
images were upside down.

Angelo Sala - a self educated chemist, he discovered that when paper
contained powdered silver nitrate it would react with sunlight, causing
it to darken. These pioneering experiments with silver salts were a
crucial step towards the later invention of photography. He published
his findings in a pamphlet in 1614.

Anna Atkins - (1799- 1871) an English Botanist, she is considered
to be the first female photographer.

Aristotle - he observed and noted the first casual reference to the
optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible, around 330 BC, he
questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined
through a square hole.

Arthur Fellig - (Weegee) became famous because of his frequent,
seemingly prescient arrivals at scenes only minutes after crimes,
fires or other emergencies were reported to authorities.

Carl William Scheele - (1742-1786) Swedish scientist, self-educated.
He used to work as an assistant in pharmacies and showed a talent in
chemistry from a very young age. In spite an offer made to him to
study in London or Berlin, he operated a pharmacy in Kφping where he
spend the rest of his life and made all his important inventions.
He was especially interest on chemical analysis and worked particularly
with the chemical reactions between silver nitrate and sunlight,
therefore making a break through in the chemistry of photography.
The records from his experiments were of a great importance for the
next generations of scientists.

Digital photography - uses an array of electronic photo detectors to
capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on
photographic film.

Emulsion - is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally
immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable). Emulsions are part of a more
general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids.

Exposure - is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane
illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film,
as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.

Film Speed - is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity
to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various
numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.

Forensic Photography - (forensic imaging)(crime scene photography)
it is the art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime scene
or an accident scene using photography for the benefit of a court or
to aid in an investigation.

Frederick Scoff Archer - an English sculptor who invented the wet
plate negative in 1851. Using a viscous solution of collodion, he
coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass
and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.

Gelatin - It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in
virtually all photographic films and photographic papers.

George Eastman - he invented in 1889 a film with a base that was
flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a
cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman's, made the mass-produced
box camera a reality.

Hamilton Smith - he patented in 1856 the Tintypes, another medium that
heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was used to
provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image.

      Tintypes - are a variation of the collodion wet plate process.
      The emulsion is painted onto a japanned (varnished) iron plate,
      which is exposed in the camera.

Heliographs - (sun prints) were the prototype for the modern photograph.

Henry Fox Talbot - an English botanist and mathematician and The
inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive prints
were made.

Hercules Florence - (1804-1879) Few details are known for his life.
In 1824 goes to Brazil and takes part in a scientific mission at the
Amazon, where he becomes preoccupied with the idea of recording images
from his trip. From 1830 devotes himself to research and
experimentation for photography. The above, gives Brazil the ability
to claim that is one of the places in the world, where photography
was found.

Hippolyte Bayard - (1807-1887) The most unfortunate from the pioneers
of photography. Discovered one direct positive photographic method.
He was the first person to hold a photographic exhibition (for
humanitarian reasons) and the first who combined two negatives to
created one print (called Combination Printing). As a civil servant
and with five hundred franks that received as financial help from
Arago for improving his method, prevented him from presenting the
discovery of photography at the French Academy of Sciences.

History of Photography - Timeline

      Ancient Times: Camera obscuras used to form images on walls in
      darkened rooms; image formation via a pinhole

      16th century: Brightness and clarity of camera obscuras improved by
      enlarging the hole inserting a telescope lens

      17th century: Camera obscuras in frequent use by artists and made
      portable in the form of sedan chairs

      1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in
      a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
      Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound.

      1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects
      on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated
      rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles.

      1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura with
      photosensitive paper

      1826: Niépce creates a permanent image

      1827: Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first known photographic
      image using the camera obscura. The camera obscura was a tool
      used by artists to draw.

      1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative) images using
      paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution.
      Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another
      sheet of paper.

      1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated
      with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury; Daguerre is
      awarded a state pension by the French government in exchange for
      publication of methods and the rights by other French citizens to use
      the Daguerreotype process.

      1841: Talbot patents his process under the name "calotype".

      1851: Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, improves
      photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion
      (nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcoohol) and chemicals on
      sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper
      than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process permitted unlimited
      reproductions, and the process was published but not patented.

      1853: Nadar (Felix Toumachon) opens his portrait studio in Paris

      1854: Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite photography in Paris,
      leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next decade

      1855: Beginning of stereoscopic era

      1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal
      (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US.

      1861: Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a color
      photography system involving three black and white photographs, each
      taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were turned
      into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color
      filters. This is the "color separation" method.

      1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff (mostly staff) covers the American
      Civil War, exposing 7000 negatives

      1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods
      for color photography.

      1870: Center of period in which the US Congress sent photographers
      out to the West. The most famous images were taken by William
      Jackson and Tim O'Sullivan.

      1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of
      an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the
      "dry plate" process.

      1877: Eadweard Muybridge, born in England as Edward Muggridge,
      settles "do a horse's four hooves ever leave the ground at once"
      bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced photography of
      Leland Stanford's horse.

      1878: Dry plates being manufactured commercially.

      1880: George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company in
      Rochester, New York. First half-tone photograph appears in a daily
      newspaper, the New York Graphic.

      1888: First Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough
      for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.

      1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper

      1890: Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives, images of
      tenament life in New york City

      1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced.

      1902: Alfred Stieglitz organizes "Photo Secessionist" show in
      New York City

      1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and
      therefore high quality color separation color photography. J.P.
      Morgan finances Edward Curtis to document the traditional culture of
      the North American Indian.

      1907: First commercial color film, the Autochrome plates,
      manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France

      1909: Lewis Hine hired by US National Child Labor Committee to
      photograph children working mills.

      1914: Oscar Barnack, employed by German microscope manufacturer Leitz,
      develops camera using the modern 24x36mm frame and sprocketed 35mm
      movie film.

      1917: Nippon Kogaku K.K., which will eventually become Nikon,
      established in Tokyo.

      1921: Man Ray begins making photograms ("rayographs") by placing
      objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow cast by a
      distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64, assigned to
      photograph the brothels of Paris

      1924: Leitz markets a derivative of Barnack's camera commercially as
      the "Leica", the first high quality 35mm camera.

      1925: André Kertész moves from his native Hungary to Paris, where he
      begins an 11-year project photographing street life

      1928: Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes The World is Beautiful,
      close-ups emphasizing the form of natural and man-made objects;
      Rollei introduces the Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex producing a 6x6
      cm image on rollfilm.; Karl Blossfeldt publishes Art Forms in Nature

      1931: Development of strobe photography by Harold ("Doc") Edgerton
      at MIT

      1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three black and
      white negatives were made in the same camera under different filters;
      Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston,
      et al, form Group f/64 dedicated to "straight photographic thought
      and production".; Henri Cartier-Bresson buys a Leica and begins a
      60-year career photographing people; On March 14, George Eastman,
      aged 77, writes suicide note--"My work is done. Why wait?"--and
      shoots himself.

      1933: Brassaï publishes Paris de nuit

      1934: Fuji Photo Film founded. By 1938, Fuji is making cameras and
      lenses in addition to film.

      1935: Farm Security Administration hires Roy Stryker to run a
      historical section. Stryker would hire Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange,
      Arthur Rothstein, et al. to photograph rural hardships over the next
      six years. Roman Vishniac begins his project of the soon-to-be-killed
      -by-their-neighbors Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.

      1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color
      film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex
      (SLR) camera
            World War II: Development of multi-layer color negative films
            Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa, Carl Mydans, and W. Eugene
            Smith cover the war for LIFE magazine

      1940s - in the early 1940's commercially viable color films
      (except Kodachrome, introduced in 1935) were brought to the market.
      These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors in
      which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together
      to create an apparent color image.

      1947: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, and David Seymour start the
      photographer-owned Magnum picture agency

      1948: Hasselblad in Sweden offers its first medium-format SLR for
      commercial sale; Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic diaphragm;
      Polaroid sells instant black and white film

      1949: East German Zeiss develops the Contax S, first SLR with an
      unreversed image in a pentaprism viewfinder

      1955: Edward Steichen curates Family of Man exhibit at New York's
      Museum of Modern Art

      1959: Nikon F introduced.

      1960: Garry Winogrand begins photographing women on the streets of
      New York City.

      1963: First color instant film developed by Polaroid; Instamatic
      released by Kodak; first purpose-built underwater introduced, the

      1970: William Wegman begins photographing his Weimaraner, Man Ray.

      1972: 110-format cameras introduced by Kodak with a 13x17mm frame

      1973: C-41 color negative process introduced, replacing C-22

      1975: Nicholas Nixon takes his first annual photograph of his wife
      and her sisters: "The Brown Sisters"; Steve Sasson at Kodak builds
      the first working CCD-based digital still camera

      1976: First solo show of color photographs at the Museum of Modern
      Art, William Eggleston's Guide

      1977: Cindy Sherman begins work on Untitled Film Stills, completed
      in 1980; Jan Groover begins
      exploring kitchen utensils

      1978: Hiroshi Sugimoto begins work on seascapes.

      1980: Elsa Dorfman begins making portraits with the 20x24" Polaroid.

      1982: Sony demonstrates Mavica "still video" camera

      1983: Kodak introduces disk camera, using an 8x11mm frame (the same
      as in the Minox spy camera)

      1985: Minolta markets the world's first autofocus SLR system (called
      "Maxxum" in the US); In the American West by Richard Avedon

      1988: Sally Mann begins publishing nude photos of her children

      1987: The popular Canon EOS system introduced, with new
      all-electronic lens mount

      1990: Adobe Photoshop released.

      1991: Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR, a modified Nikon F3

      1992: Kodak introduces PhotoCD

      1993: Founding of (this Web site), an early Internet online
      community; Sebastiao Salgado publishes Workers; Mary Ellen Mark
      publishes book documenting life in an Indian circus.

      1995: Material World, by Peter Menzel published.

      1997: Rob Silvers publishes Photomosaics

      1999: Nikon D1 SLR, 2.74 megapixel for $6000, first ground-up DSLR
      design by a leading manufacturer.

      2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone

      2001: Polaroid goes bankrupt

      2003: Four-Thirds standard for compact digital SLRs introduced with
      the Olympus E-1; Canon Digital Rebel introduced for less than $1000

      2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras

      2005: Canon EOS 5D, first consumer-priced full-frame digital SLR,
      with a 24x36mm CMOS sensor for $3000; Portraits by Rineke Dijkstra

Infrared Photography - the film or image sensor used is sensitive to
infrared light.

Johann Heinrich Schulze - (1687 - 1744) he was a German professor at
the University of Altdorf. He was the first person to produce
Photograms, which were created by using paper masks in direct contact
with a jar containing a mixture of silver nitrate powder and chalk.
Schulze proved that the darkening of silver nitrate was caused by light
and ruled out the possibility of the change being caused by temperature,
by observing no tonal change to silver nitrate when heated in an oven.

Joseph Nicephore Niepce - made the first photographic image with a
camera obscura.

Latent Image - is an invisible image produced by the exposure to
light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.

Louis Daguerre - a Frenchman and A professional scene painter,  was
able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image
from disappearing afterwards. He was the inventor of the first practical
process of photography.

Mugshot - (police photograph)(booking photograph) is a photographic
portrait typically taken after a person is arrested.

Negative - is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent
plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject
appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.

Parallax - is a displacement or difference in the apparent position
of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is
measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those
two lines.

Photography - It is a method of recording images by the action of light,
or related radiation, on a sensitive material.

Photographic Film - (Film) is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic
film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing
microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

Point-and-Shoot Camera - (compact camera) is a still camera designed
primarily for simple operation.[1] Most use focus free lenses or
autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure
options, and have flash units built in.

Rogues Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of
criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.

Shutter Lag - is the delay between triggering the shutter and when
the photograph is actually recorded.

Shutter Speed - (exposure time) is the length of time a camera's
shutter is open when taking a photograph.

Silver Halides - The light-sensitive chemicals used in photographic
film and paper.

Single-Lens Reflex Camera (SLR) - typically uses a mirror and prism
system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that permits
the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will
be captured, contrary to viewfinder cameras where the image could
be significantly different from what will be captured.

Sir Humphry Davy - (1778-1829) Chemistry genius, friend and assistant
of Wedgwood in his experiments whose results were published at Royal
Society, in 1802 by Davy. The problem of "fixing" the images remained
in spite of Davy's breakthroughs in chemistry.

Sir John F.W. Herschel - a scientist who first used the word photography
in 1839. The word photography was derived from the Greek words Photos,
which means light and Graphein, which means to draw.

Snapshot - is popularly defined as a photograph that is "shot"
spontaneously and quickly, most often without artistic or
journalistic intent.

Thomas Wedgwood - (1771 - 1805) an Englishman who made good ground
creating Photograms and recording images from his Camera Obscura
or pinhole camera, However, he never overcome the problem of fixing
the image and therefore the prints produced had to be viewed for very
short periods of time in a darkened environment.

Twin-Lens Reflex Camera (TLR) - is a type of camera with two objective
lenses of the same focal length.

Viewfinder - is what the photographer looks through to compose,
and in many cases to focus, the picture.

Personal Identification Reviewer

Personal identification Reviewer

personal identification reviewer
Personal Identification

Personal Identification 

Alphonse Bertillon - was a French criminologist and anthropologist who created the first system of physical measurements, photography, and record-keeping that police could use to identify recidivist criminals.

Ancient Babylon - fingerprints were used in clay tablets for business transactions. 1000 - 2000 BC

Anthropometry - the first system of personal identification.

Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose(1897) - Two Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification (named after their supervisor,
Edward Richard Henry).

Bertillon System - a system of identification which focuses on the meticulous measurement and recording of different parts and components of the human body.

Chiroscopy – It is the examination and thorough study of the palms of the human hand as a point identifying persons.

Core -
1. Approximate center of the pattern
2. It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve.

Dactyl - finger

Dactylography - the scientific study of fingerprints as a means of identification.

Dactylomancy - the scientific study of fingerprint for the purposes of personality interpretation.

Dactyloscopy - a method of studying fingerprints to establish identification.

Delta -
1. point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence of two typelines and
2. is located at or directly in front of the point of divergence.

Dermal Papillae - is the irregular pegs composed of delicate connective tissue protruding and forming ridges of the skin on the fingers, palms, toes, and soles of the feet.

Dr. Henry P. DeForrest - he accomplished the first fingerprint file established in the United States, and the first use of fingerprinting by a U.S. government agency.

Dr. Nehemiah Grew - in 1684, he was the first European to publish friction ridge skin observations.

Edgeoscopy – the study of the morphological characteristics of friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction ridges.

Edmond Locard - informally referred to as the Sherlock Holmes of France, he developed the science of poroscopy, the study of fingerprint pores and the impressions produced by these pores. He went on to write that if 12 specific points were identical between two fingerprints, it would be sufficient for positive identification. This work led to the use of fingerprints in identifying criminals being adopted over Bertillon's earlier technique of anthropometry.

Fingerprint - is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any part of the finger. Fingerprint ridges are formed during the third to fourth month of fetal development.

Fingerprint Classification Systems
1. The Henry Classification System – developed by Henry in the late 1800s.
2. Icnofalangometric System – the originalname of the system developed by Vucetichin 1891
3. Dactiloscopy – the new name of the systemdeveloped by Vucetich.
4. The Oloriz System of Classification – developed by Oloriz.
Identakey – developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs.
5. The American System of FingerprintClassification – developed by Parke in1903.
6. The Conley System. The Flack-ConleySystem – developed in 1906 in New Jersey,an improved Conley System.
7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System. Collins System – a classification system forsingle fingerprint used in Scotland Yard inthe early 1900s.
8. Jorgensen System – a classification systemfor single fingerprints used in the early1900s.
9. Battley System – a classification system forsingle fingerprints used in the 1930s

Friction Skin - also called papillary skin, is the epidermal layer found on the ventral or lower surface of the hands and feet covered with ridges and furrows.

Fundamental layers of friction skin
1. Epidermis - outer layer (stratum corneum, stratum mucusum)
2. Dermis - inner layer (blood vessel, dermal papipllae, various glands and nerves)

Furrows - the depressed or canal-like structure/the white space between the ridges.

Gilbert Thompson - He used his thumb print on a document to prevent forgery. First known use of fingerprints in the U.S.

John Evangelist Purkinje - anatomy professor at the University of Breslau, in 1823, he published his thesis discussing nine fingerprint patterns  but he made no mention of the value of fingerprints for
personal identification. He is considered by many as the Father of Dactyloscopy. For purposes of the
criminology licensure examination, Johannes Evangelist Purkenji is the same person as John Evangelist Purkinje.

Juan Vucetich - In 1892, two boys were brutally murdered in the village of Necochea, near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Initially, suspicion fell on a man named Velasquez, a suitor of the children's mother, Francisca Rojas. Investigators found a bloody fingerprint at the crime scene and contacted Juan Vucetich, who was developing a system of fingerprint identification for police use. Vucetich compared the fingerprints of Rojas and Velasquez with the bloody fingerprint. Francisca Rojas had denied touching the bloody bodies, but the fingerprint matched one of hers. Confronted with the evidence, she confessed—the first successful use of fingerprint identification in a
murder investigation.

Loop -
1. One or more ridges enter upon either side
2. Recurve
3. Touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and core
4. Pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the ridges entered.

           Three Loop Characteristics
           1. A sufficient recurve
           2. A Delta
           3. A ridge count across a looping ridge

Marcelo Malpighi - in 1686,  an anatomy professor at the University of Bologna, noted fingerprint ridges, spirals and loops in his treatise. A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which is approximately 1.8mm thick. Malpighi is considered as the "Grandfather of Dactyloscopy".

Mark Twain - author of the novel Pudd'nhead Wilson where one of the characters has a hobby of collecting fingerprints.

Paul-Jean Coulier - of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, published his observations that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine fuming, explaining how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions and mentioning the potential for identifying suspects' fingerprints by
use of a magnifying glass.

Poroscopy – refers to the examination of the shape,size and arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through which body fluids are secreted or released. Poros (a pair), Skopien (to study)

Podoscopy – a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which refers to the examination of the soles and their significance in personal identification. Podo (foot), Skopien (to study)

Ridge - the elevated or hill-like structure (the black lines with white dots)
1. Recurving Ridge - a single ridge that curves back to the direction where it started.
2. Ending Ridge - it refers to an abrupt end of a ridge
3. Enclosure or Lake Ridge - a single ridge that divides into two but does not remain open and meet at a certain point to form the original single ridge.
4. Sufficent Recurve - a recurving ridge which is complete with its shoulder free from any appendage.
5.Diverging Ridge - two ridges that split apart.
6.Converging Ridge - two ridges that meet at certain point.
7.Bifurcation - a ridge formation in which a single ridge splits or divides into 2 or more ridges.
8.Ridge Dot (Island Ridge) - refers to a ridge formation in a form of a dot or period.
9.Appendage - a short ridge found at the top or summit of a recurve.
10.Rod (Bar) - a short or long ridge found inside the recurve directed towards the core.
11.Obstruction Ridge - short ridge found inside the recurve which blocks the inner line of flow towards the core.
12.Typelines - a diverging ridge that tends to surround the pattern area and serves as a basic boundary of fingerprint impression.
13.Pattern Area - a part of a loop or whorl pattern surrounded by typelines and consisting of the delta, the core and other ridges.
14.Delta - also called the outer terminus, is a point along the ridge formation found at the center or near the center of the diverging typelines.
15.Core - also called the heart or inner terminus, usually found at the center of the innermost recurve.

Ridge Destruction - ridge destruction of the friction skin can either be temporary or permanent. Generally temporary destruction occur when only the epidermis layer of the friction skin has been damaged while permanent damage can be injected to the friction skin due to the damage in the dermis layer.

Ridge Formation - ridges start to form in the fingers and thumb during the 3rd to 4th month of fetus life.

Ridgeology – describes the individualization process of any area of friction skin using allavailable detail.

Ridge Characteristics
1. Ridge Dots - An isolated ridge unit whose length approximates its width in size.
2. Bifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides into two friction ridges.
3. Trifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides into three friction ridges.
4. Ending Ridge - A single friction ridge that terminates within the friction ridge structure.
5. Ridge Crossing - A point where two ridge units intersect.
6. Enclosures (Lakes) - A single friction ridge that bifurcates and rejoins after a short course and continues as a single friction ridge.
7. Short Ridges (Islands) - Friction ridges of varying lengths.
8. Spurs (Hooks) - A bifurcation with one short ridge branching off a longer ridge.
9. Bridges - A connecting friction ridge between parallel running ridges, generally right angles.

Sir Edward Richard Henry -  he was appointed Inspector-General of Police of Bengal, India in 1891, he developed a system of fingerprint classification enabling fingerprint records to be organized and searched with relative ease.

Sir Francis Galton - He devised a method of classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science. He pointed out that there were specific types of fingerprint patterns. He described and classified them into eight broad categories: 1: plain arch, 2: tented arch, 3: simple loop, 4: central pocket loop, 5: double loop, 6: lateral pocket loop, 7: plain whorl, and 8: accidental

Sir Henry Faulds - his first paper on the subject of fingerprint was published in the scientific journal Nature in 1880. Examining his own fingertips and those of friends, he became convinced that the
pattern of ridges was unique to each individual.

Sir William James Herschel - was a British officer in India who used fingerprints for identification on contracts.

Skopien - to study or examine.

Sweat duct - the passage way.

Sweat gland - the producers of sweat.

Sweat pores - the tiny opening/the tiny white dot

Time Line - Fingerprints

1000-2000 B.C. - Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions in ancient Babylon.

3rd Century B.C. - Thumbprints begin to be used on clay seals in China to “sign” documents.

610-907 A.D. - During the T’ang Dynasty, a time when imperial China was one of the most powerful and wealthy regions of the world, fingerprints are reportedly used on official documents.

1st Century A.D. - A petroglyph located on a cliff face in Nova Scotia depicts a hand with exaggerated ridges and finger whorls, presumably left by the Mi'kmaq people.

14th Century A.D. - Many official government documents in Persia have fingerprint impressions. One government physician makes the observation that no two fingerprints were an exact match.

1686 - At the University of Bologna in Italy, a professor of anatomy named Marcello Malpighi notes the common characteristics of spirals, loops and ridges in fingerprints, using the newly invented microscope for his studies. In time, a 1.88mm thick layer of skin, the “Malpighi layer,” was named after him. Although Malpighi was likely the first to document types of fingerprints, the value of fingerprints as identification tools was never mentioned in his writings.

1823 - A thesis is published by Johannes Evengelista Purkinje, professor of anatomy with the University of Breslau, Prussia. The thesis details a full nine different fingerprint patterns. Still, like Malpighi, no mention is made of fingerprints as an individual identification method.

1858 - The Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, Sir William Herschel, first used fingerprints to “sign” contracts with native Indians. In July of 1858, a local businessman named Rajyadhar Konai put his hand print on the back of a contract at Herschel’s request. Herschel was not
motivated by the need to prove personal identity; rather, his motivation was to simply “frighten (Konai) out of all thought of repudiating his signature.” As the locals felt more bound to a contract through this personal contact than if it was just signed, as did the ancient Babylonians and Chinese, Herschel adopted the practice permanently. Later, only the prints of the right index and middle fingers were required on contracts. In time, after viewing a number of fingerprints, Herschel noticed that no two prints were exactly alike, and he observed that even in widespread use, the fingerprints could be used for personal identification purposes.

1880 - Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon and Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, published an article in the Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. Faulds had begun his study of what he called “skin-furrows” during the 1870s after looking at fingerprints on pieces of old clay pottery. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification: a greasy print left by a laboratory worker on a bottle of alcohol. Soon, Faulds began to recognize that the distinctive patterns on fingers held great promise as a means of individual identification, and developed a classification system for recording these inked impressions. Also in 1880, Faulds sent a description of his fingerprint classification system to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, aging and in poor health, declined to assist Dr. Faulds in the further study of fingerprints, but forwarded the information on to his cousin, British scientist Sir Francis Galton.

1882 - Gilbert Thompson, employed by the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, uses his own fingerprints on a document to guard against forgery. This event is the first known use of fingerprints for identification in America.

1883 - “Life on the Mississippi,” a novel by Mark Twain, tells the story of a murderer who is identified by the use of fingerprints. His later book "Pudd'n Head Wilson” includes a courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification.

1888 - Sir Francis Galton’s began his study of fingerprints during the 1880s, primarily to develop a tool for determining genetic history and hereditary traits. Through careful study of the work of Faulds, which he learned of through his cousin Sir Charles Darwin, as well as his examination of fingerprints collected by Sir William Herschel, Galton became the first to provide scientific evidence that no two fingerprints are exactly the same, and that prints remain the same throughout a person’s lifetime. He calculated that the odds of finding two identical fingerprints were 1 in 64 billion.

1892 - Galton’s book “Fingerprints” is published, the first of its kind. In the book, Galton detailed the first classification system for fingerprints; he identified three types (loop, whorl, and arch) of characteristics for fingerprints (also known as minutia). These characteristics are to an extent still in use today, often referred to as Galton’s Details.

1892 - Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police official, had recently begun keeping the first fingerprint files based on Galton’s Details. History was made that year when Vucetich made the first criminal fingerprint identification. A woman named Rojas had murdered her two sons, then cut her own throat to deflect blame from herself. Rojas left a bloody print on a doorpost. After investigators matched the crime scene print to that of the accused, Rojas confessed. Vucetich eventually developed his own system of classification, and published a book entitled Dactiloscopía Comparada ("Comparative Fingerprinting") in 1904, detailing the Vucetich system, still the most used system in Latin America.

1896 - British official Sir Edward Richard Henry had been living in Bengal, and was looking to use a system similar to that of Herschel’s to eliminate problems within his jurisdiction. After visiting Sir Francis Galton in England, Henry returned to Bengal and instituted a fingerprinting program for all prisoners. By July of 1896, Henry wrote in a report that the classification limitations had not yet been addressed. A short time later, Henry developed a system of his own, which included 1,024 primary classifications. Within a year, the Governor General signed a resolution directing that fingerprinting was to be the official method of identifying criminals in British India.

1901 - Back in England and Wales, the success of the “Henry Fingerprint Classification System” in India was creating a stir, and a committee was formed to review Scotland Yard's identification methods. Henry was then transferred to England, where he began training investigators to use the Henry Classification System after founding Scotland Yard's Central Fingerprint Bureau. Within a few years, the Henry Classification System was in use around the world, and fingerprints had been established as the uniform system of identification for the future. The Henry Classification System is still in use today in English speaking countries around the globe.

1902 - Alphonse Bertillon, director of the Bureau of Identification of the Paris Police, is responsible for the first criminal identification of a fingerprint without a known suspect. A print taken from the scene of a homicide was compared against the criminal fingerprints already on file, and a match was made, marking another milestone in law enforcement technology. Meanwhile, the New York Civil Service Commission, spearheaded by Dr. Henry P. DeForrest, institutes testing of the first systematic use of fingerprints in the United States.

1903 - Fingerprinting technology comes into widespread use in the United States, as the New York Police Department, the New York State Prison system and the Federal Bureau of Prisons begin
working with the new science.

1904 - The St. Louis Police Department and the Leavenworth State Penitentiary in Kansas start utilizing fingerprinting, assisted by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been guarding the British Display at the St. Louis Exposition.

1905 - The U.S. Army gets on the fingerprinting bandwagon, and within three years was joined by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. In the ensuing 25 years, as more law enforcement agencies joined in using fingerprints as personal identification methods, these agencies began sending copies of the fingerprint cards to the recently established National Bureau of Criminal  Investigation.

1911 - The first central storage location for fingerprints in North America is established in Ottawa by Edward Foster of the Dominion Police Force. The repository is maintained by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and while it originally held only 2000  sets of fingerprints, today the number is over 2 million.

1924 - The U.S. Congress acts to establish the Identification Division of the F.B.I. The National Bureau and Leavenworth are consolidated to form the basis of the F.B.I. fingerprint repository. By 1946, the F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint cards;  that number doubles by 1971.

1990s - AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems, begin widespread use around the country. This computerized system of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint records would eventually become capable of searching millions of fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law enforcement efforts.

1996 - As Americans become more concerned with the growing missing and abducted children problem, and law enforcement groups urge the fingerprinting of children for investigative purposes in
the event of a child becoming missing, Chris Migliaro founds Fingerprint America in Albany, NY. The company provides a simple, at-home fingerprinting and identification kit for parents,
maintaining the family’s privacy while protecting and educating children about the dangers of abduction. By 2001, the company distributes over 5 million Child ID Fingerprinting Kits around the world.

1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint cards with their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West Virginia.  IAFIS will starts with individual computerized fingerprint records
for approximately 33 million criminals, while the outdated paper cards for the civil files are kept at a facility in Fairmont, West Virginia.

Typelines -
1. Two innermost ridges that start or go parallel
2. Diverge and surround or tend to surround the pattern area

Types of Fingerprints
1. Visible Prints
2. Latent Prints
3. Impressed Prints

Visible Prints - also called patent prints and are left in some medium, like blood, that reveals them to the naked eye when blood, dirt, ink or grease on the finger come into contact with a smooth surface and leave a friction ridge impression that is visible without development.

         Latent Prints - not apparent to the naked eye. They are
         formed from the sweat from sebaceous glands on the body or
         water, salt, amino acids and oils contained in sweat.
         They can be made sufficiently visible by dusting, fuming or
         chemical reagents.

         Impressed prints - also called plastic prints and are
         indentations left in soft pliable surfaces, such as clay,
         wax, paint or another surface that will take the impression.
         They are visible and can be viewed or photographed without

Types of Patterns
1. Arch  a. Plain Arch
              b. Tented Arch
2. Loop  a. Radial Loop
              b. Ulnar Loop
3. Whorl a. Plain Whorl
               b. Central Pocket Loop
               c. Double Loop
               d. Accidental Whorl

            Plain Arch - 1. Ridges enter upon one side
                                 2. Make a rise or wave in the center
                                 3. Flow or tend to flow out upon the
                                    opposite side.

            Tented Arch - Possesses an 1. Angle
                                                           2. Upthrust
                                                           3. Two of The Three basic
                                                               characteristics of the loop

            Ulnar loop - flow toward the little finger - ulna bone.

            Radial Loop - flow toward the thumb - radius bone.

            Plain Whorl - 1. Consists of one or more ridges which make
                             or tend to make a complete circuit
                          2. With 2 delta's
                          3. Between which, when an imaginary line is
                             drawn, at least one recurving ridge within
                             the inner pattern area is cut or touched.

            Central Pocket Loop - 1. Consists of at least one recurving
                                                    ridge or
                                                2. An obstruction at right angles to
                                                     the line of flow
                                                3. With 2 delta's
                                                4. Between which, when an imaginary
                                                    line is drawn, no recurving ridge
                                                    within the inner pattern area is
                                                    cut or touched.

            Double Loop - 1. Consists of two separate loop formations
                                    2. With two separate and distinct set of
                                        shoulders and
                                    3. Two delta's

            Accidental Whorl - 1. Consists of a combination of two
                                               different types of patterns with the
                                              exception of the plain arch
                                          2. With 2 or more delta's or
                                         3. A pattern which possesses some of the
                                             requirements for 2 or more different
                                             types or a pattern which conforms to
                                             none of the definitions.

More reading materials
1. Fingerprint
2. Question and Answers

Master Plumber Board Exam Result

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Master Plumber Board Exam Result February 2015

Related: Latest Master Plumber Licensure Examination Results

The result of the February 2015 Master Plumber Licensure Examination has been released.

432 took the exam but only 215 examinees passed.

Click here for the complete list of those who passed.

116 Schools participated in the examination.

42 Schools obtained a passing percentage of 0%.

21 Schools have 100% passing percentage, with the exception of UP
Diliman which have 4 examinees, all the rest fielded only 1 to 3

Only 3 Master Plumber School excelled in this exam namely:
1. Malayan College Laguna - 4 passed out of 5 - 80% passing
2. Mariano Marcos State University - 4 passed out of 5 - passing
    percentage of 80%
3. UP - Diliman - 4 passed out of 4 - 100% passing percentage

Registration for the issuance of Professional Identification Card
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Police Intelligence Reviewer

Police Intelligence

Police Intelligence Reviewer

Accuracy of Information 
1 - Confirmed By Other Sources
2 - Probably True
3 - Possibly True
4 - Doubtfully True
5 - Improbable
6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged

Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to identify those
who are disloyal to him by ordering the opening of communication
letter of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de corps
and morale of his men.

ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary responsibility
is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interest
using agents stationed in wide variety of areas. Its main purpose like
other most agencies is to protect the country's political and
economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against
national threats.

Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence Service, is the
foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the BND act as
the early warning system to alert the German government against
threats to its interest coming from abroad.

Categories of Intelligence
1. National Intelligence - integrated product of intelligence
   developed by all government departments concerning the broad
   aspect of national policy and national security.
2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the
   department or agencies of the government to execute iys mission
   and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge by the military
   institution essential in the preparation and execution of military
   plans, policies and programs.

CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence agency
of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world.

Classifications of Documents
1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection, Unauthorized
   revelation of this materials and information will cause extremely
   severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or
2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things may
   put at risk the national security, cause serious injury to the
   reputation of the nation.
3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious
   to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or will
   cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury.
4. Restricted - this are information which should not be published
   or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. These
   records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or
   destroyed will not affect operation or administration.

Classification of Sources of Information
1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected are coming from
   open sources or obtained from overt operation.
2. Close Sources - only 1% of information are obtained from covert

      Elements of Clandestine Operation
      1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the clandestine
      2. Target - person, place or things against which the
         clandestine activity is to be conducted.
      3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts the clandestine
         operations, includes principal agents, action agents,
         and support agents.

            Principal Agent - leader or management agent in clandestine
            operation usually undertaken by the case officer.

            Action Agent - one who conducts the clandestine operation
            that includes:
               a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely procure or
                  collect information.

               b. Propagandist - agents who molds the attitudes, opinions
                  and actions of an individual group or nation.

            Support Agent - agent who is engaged in activities which
            supports the clandestine operations that includes the ff:
               a. Surveillant - agent who observes persons and places
                  of operation of interest.
               b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure
                  information or things of clandestine operation.

            Procurer of Funds - agent who obtains money when needed
            for operational use.

            Safe House Keeper - agents who manages and maintains a safe
            house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe heavens,
            training, briefing and debriefing.

            Communication Agent - agent who is detailed to secure
            clandestine communications.          

Coding - the changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible
form, also known as encrypting.

      Decoding - transforming of coded message into plain text, also
      known as decrypting.

Counter Intelligence - phase of intelligence covering the activity
devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities
and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and

      Types of Counter Intelligence
      1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and sensitive
         information against unauthorized access through secrecy,
         communication security and other safeguards.
      2. Active CI Measures - are those measures which seek actively
         to block enemies effort to gain information or engage in
         espionage, subversion and sabotage.

      Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations
      1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken by a
         command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation,
         sabotage, subversion, or surprise.
      2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both
         military and civil security measures for counter-intelligence
         control at point of entry and departure, international borders
         and boundaries.
      3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence
         measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently
         or temporarily residing in an area under military
      4. Special Operations - counter subversion, sabotage and espionage.

      Objectives of Counter-Intelligence
      1. It denies information to the enemy
      2. It reduces the risk of a command
      3. Aid in achieving surprises
      4. Increases the security of the command
      5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information
         about he forces.
      Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence
      1. Protection of Information against espionage
      2. Protection of personnel against subversion
      3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers.

Crypto Analyst - refers to those persons who break intercepted codes.

Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting
message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and ciphers.

Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain information
by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the fall of
Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines.

Frederick The Great - Father of organized military espionage.
FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is the main
domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the main
successor of the Cheka, NKVD and the KGB.

General Directorate For External Security - France external
intelligence agency, operating under the direction of  the french
Ministry of Defense.

Informants - any person who hand over information to the agents which
is relevant to the subject.

      Type of Informants
      1. Anonymous - unidentified or unknown informants.
      2. False Informant - reveals information of no consequences
         or value.
      3. Frightened Informants - weakest link in criminal chain,
         motivated by anxiety.
      4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the the center of criminals
         delight in surprising the police about bits of information.
      5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for exchange
         of information.
      6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from the police
         more than what he gives.
      7. Women Informant - most dangerous type of informant.
      8. Legitimate - operators of business.

      Motives of Informants
      1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting to
         self betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable
         attention and importance by the police.
      2. Civic-Mindedness - sense of duty and obligation to assist
         the police.
      3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or
         of other impending danger.
      4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes to
         report a crime that is preying on his conscience.
      5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to obtain
         a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family
         during his detention.
      6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury.
      7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or possessions of
         another and wishes to humiliate him.
      8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the pecuniary
         or other material gain he is to receive.

Informers - refers to any person who provides information to the agents
in a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a
regular or case to case basis.      

Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to assist
it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and
clear pattern. (intelligence as an activity)
             - the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all
available information which may have immediate or potential
significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and
programs of the user.(intelligence as a product)
             - an institution composed of person who prepares a plan
or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution)

Intelligence Cycle
1. Planning
2. Collection
3. Processing
4. Dissemination

      Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough
      knowledge of the available sources of information, the
      collecting agencies and type of information the latter can

      Collection - the intelligence officer must have thorough
      knowledge of the available sources of information and
      collecting agencies and the type of information they can
      provide and consider the following:
         a. Determine collecting agency
         b. Send orders or request
         c. Supervise collection efforts
         d. Use tools or techniques in collection
         e. Ensure timely collection

         Factors in Choosing Collection Agents
         a. Capability - agents placement or access to target
         b. Multiplicity - more agents
         c. Balance

      Processing - Five Steps
      1. Recording - is the reduction of information in writing
         or other form of graphical representation and
         arranging the information into groups of related items.
      2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the
         information to the operation, reliability of the source or
         agency and the accuracy of the information.
               Pertinence - does it holds some value to current
               Reliability - judging the source of information or
               Credibility - truth of information
      3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected information
         is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts
         and derive conclusions there from.
      4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated
         analysis with other known information related to the
      5. Interpretation - process of determining the significance of
         new information and its meaning.

      Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data are
      disseminated to end users, common methods of disseminating intel
      data are conferences, briefing and person to person exchanges.
      In this process, consider the factors of timeliness, correctness
      and security.

ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence
agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in Islamabad.

Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion includes ten
speculators who served as an information collecting agency. The
Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a
military organization. Military success of the Romans was aided by
the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carrier which made
intelligence transmittal very fast.

Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was credited for
establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master of
deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information to identify
the enemy's of Napoleon.

Kinds of Covert Operation
   1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people and
      places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the
      identities or activities of subjects.

         Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to
         make the observation.

         Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle,
         group of people, organization, or object.

         Safe house - refers to place where agents meet each other
         for purposes of debriefing and reporting.

         Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants
         leave their messages to the other agents.

         Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an attempt
         to elude the surveillant.

         Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to
         detect surveillance.

         Log - chronological records of activities that took place
         in the establishment under surveillance.

         Methods of Surveillance
         1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or
            Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or suspect
            that a person is at or will come to a known location, when
            you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped  or when
            informants have told you that a crime is going to be

         2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the act
            of following a person.

               Forms of Shadowing/Tailing
               1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression
                  of the subject's habits and associates is required.
               2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special
                  precautions, subject maybe aware of the surveillance,
                  employed also when the subject is a material
                  witness and must be protected from harm or other
                  undesirable influences.
               3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against
                  losing the subject is employed where constant
                  surveillance is necessary.

   2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine
      its suitability for a particular operational purpose.

   3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a person
      believe to be in possession of vital information without his
      knowledge or suspicion.

   4. Employment of Technical Means

            Bugging - the use of an equipment or tool to listen and
            record discreetly conversation of other people.

            Wiretapping - a method of collecting information through
            interception of telephone conversation.

   5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of obtaining
      information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge

   6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting
      information by just merely using the different senses.

Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information
      Information - all evaluated materials of every description
      including those derived from observation, reports, rumors,
      imagery and other sources from which intelligence is produced.

      Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information
      1. Agent of Influence - agent who uses authority to gain
      2. Agent in Place - agent who has been recruited within a highly
         sensitive target
      3. Penetration Agent - agent who have reached the enemy, gather
         information and able to get back without being caught.
      4. Expendable Agent - agent who leaks false information to the
      5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into custody
         turned around and sent back where he came from as an agent
         of his captors.

MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British government
of foreign intelligence.

MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the
Peoples Republic of China.

Mole - also known as sleeper agent. Tasked with monitoring an
organization or individual. A mole can spend years in the same place
only responding to missions when assigned. They are trained to be
visible but to keep their motives unknown.

Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is
responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation of
the Israel government, Its Director reports directly to the
Israel Prime Minister.  It is one of the entities of the Israeli
intelligence community along with AMAN (Military Intelligence) and
SHIN BET (Internal Security)

Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the land,
the people, their location and the nature of their cities.

NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the primary
intelligence gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is
Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is
assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General reports
directly to the President of the Philippines.

      EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to activate
      the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance
      Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the primary intel
      provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the
      supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the
      NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAV's to
      cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government

Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available
information regarding the activities of criminals and other law
violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining evidence
and prevent plan to commit crimes.

      Categories of Police Intelligence
      1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the
         capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which
         is required by the national planners for the formulation
         of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long
      2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of plans
         and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities
         undesirable to the police organization.
      3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information
         directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific
         objectives and immediate in nature and necessary for more
         effective police planning and operation.

      Components of Strategic Intelligence
      1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign
         affairs and relations of government operations.
      2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and utilization
         of natural and human resources to the industrial potential
         of the nation.
      3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence - concerned
         with the operations and facilities of the military and

      Functional Classification of Police Intelligence
      1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential
         to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest
         and prosecution of criminal offenders.
      2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge
         essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
      3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge
         essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.

Principles of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent
2. Intelligence is continuous
3. Intelligence must be useful
4. Intelligence operation requires imagination and foresight
5. intelligence must be available on time
6. Intelligence must be flexible
7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures

RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external intelligence
agency. Its primary function is collection of external intelligence,
counter-terrorism and covert operations.

Reliability of Information
A - Completely Reliable
B - Usually Reliable
C - Fairly Reliable
D - Not Usually Reliable
E - Unreliable
F - Reliability Can Not Be Judge

Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible authority
that the person described is clear to access and classify matters
at appropriate levels.

      Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years.
      Final Clearance - effective for 5 years.

Security Measures and Operations in Relation To Intelligence
1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is concerned
   with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and
   prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials,
   documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage,
   or theft.
2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the
   application of various measures which prevent or delay the enemy
   or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication.
   This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical security.
3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified matters
   and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage,
   theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure.
4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed, inquiries
   conducted and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to
   a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a
   particular employee.

         Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the
         character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and
         loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's
         suitability for appointment and access to classified matters.

         Types of PSI
         1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of the
            records and files of agency in the area of principal
            residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor,
            Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident.
         2. National Agency Check - it consist of LAC supplemented by
            investigation of the records and files of the following
            agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration
            and other agencies.
         3. Background Investigation - a check made on an individual
            usually seeking employment through subject's records in
            the police files, educational institutions, place of
            residence and former employers.

               Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI which
               is more comprehensive, it consist of detailed information
               regarding the subject.

               Partial Background Investigation - investigation of the
               background of an individual but limited only to some of
               the circumstances.

Sun Tzu - author of the art of war.

Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising one's
own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of
gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret
information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order
to gain information or evidence.

      Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying agent's
      real personality including but not limited to things, location,
      job and others that will be used in undercover assignments.

         Types of Cover
         1. Artificial -altering the background that will correspond
            to theh operation.
         2. Multiple - includes different cover
         3. Natural - actual or true background

      Hazards of Undercover Operations
      1. Reintegration back to normal duty
      2. Maintenance of identity

      Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment
      1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the neighborhood
         of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident
         without making any suspicion. His mission is to make friends
         within its neighborhood and gather information regarding
         the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject.
      2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the subject
         by going to the different hangout places of the subject and
         gather information like knowing how to drink socially
         without getting drunk.
      3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where the subject
         work to acquire information. The agent must know his work and
         focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment
      4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of all
         the undercover assignment, the agent will join the organization
         of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the
         group and the actions while inside should conform to the
         organization to avoid any suspicion.