police intelligence reviewer
Police Intelligence

Police Intelligence Reviewer

Accuracy of Information 
1 - Confirmed By Other Sources
2 - Probably True
3 - Possibly True
4 - Doubtfully True
5 - Improbable
6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged

Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to identify those who were disloyal to him by ordering the opening of communication letters of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de corps and morale of his men.

Artificial Intelligence - The ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.

ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary responsibility is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interests using agents stationed in a wide variety of areas. Its main purpose like other most agencies is to protect the country's political and economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against national threats.

Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence Service, is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the BND acts as the early warning system to alert the German government against threats to its interests coming from abroad.

Categories of Intelligence
1. National Intelligence - an integrated product of intelligence developed by all government departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national security.
2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the department or agencies of the government to execute its mission and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge of the military institution essential in the preparation and execution of military plans, policies, and programs.

CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence agency of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world.

Classifications of Documents
1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection, Unauthorized revelation of these materials and information will cause extremely severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or militarily.
2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of these documents or things may put at risk the national security, and cause serious injury to the reputation of the nation.
3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or will cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury.
4. Restricted - this is information that should not be published or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. These records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or destroyed will not affect operation or administration.

Classification of Sources of Information
1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected comes from open sources or obtained from an overt operation.
2. Close Sources - only 1% of information is obtained from covert operations.

Elements of Clandestine Operation
1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the clandestine activity.
2. Target - person, place, or things against which the clandestine activity is to be conducted.
3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts clandestine operations, including principal agents, action agents, and support agents.

Principal Agent - leader or management agent in clandestine operation usually undertaken by the case officer.

Action Agent - one who conducts the clandestine operation that includes:
a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely procures or collects information.
b. Propagandist - agents who mold the attitudes, opinions, and actions of an individual group or nation

Support Agent - an agent who is engaged in activities that support clandestine operations that include the following:
a. Surveillant - an agent who observes persons and places of operation of interest.
b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure information or things of clandestine operation.

Procurer of Funds - an agent who obtains money when needed for operational use.

Safe House Keeper - agents who manage and maintain a safe house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe havens, training, briefing, and debriefing.

Communication Agent - an agent who is detailed to secure clandestine communications.          

Coding - the changing of a message from plain clear text to unintelligible form, also known as encrypting.

Decoding - transforming a coded message into plain text, also known as decrypting.

Counter Intelligence - the phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted to destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and the protection of information against espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Types of Counter Intelligence
1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and sensitive information against unauthorized access through secrecy, communication security, and other safeguards.
2. Active CI Measures - these are those measures that seek actively to block enemies' efforts to gain information or engage in espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations
1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion, or surprise.
2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both military and civil security measures for counter-intelligence control at the point of entry and departure, international borders and boundaries.
3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction.
4. Special Operations - counter-subversion, sabotage, and espionage.

Objectives of Counter-Intelligence
1. It denies information to the enemy
2. It reduces the risk of a command
3. Aid in achieving surprises
4. Increases the security of the command
5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information about the forces.
Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence
1. Protection of Information against espionage
2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage

Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers.

Crypto Analysts - refers to those persons who break intercepted codes.

Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting messages from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and ciphers.

Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain information by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the fall of Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines.

Frederick The Great - Father of organized military espionage.
FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is the main domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the main successor of the Cheka, NKVD, and the KGB.

General Directorate For External Security - France's external intelligence agency, operating under the direction of the French Ministry of Defense.

Heavy Water/Deuterium Oxide - A form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium.

Informants - any person who hands over information to the agents that is relevant to the subject.

Type of Informants
1. Anonymous - unidentified or unknown informants.
2. False Informant - reveals information of no consequences or value.
3. Frightened Informants - the weakest link in the criminal chain, motivated by anxiety.
4. Self-aggrandizing - moves around the center of criminals delight in surprising the police with bits of information.
5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for exchange of information.
6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from the police than what he gives.
7. Women Informant - the most dangerous type of informant.
8. Legitimate - operators of business.

Motives of Informants
1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting in self-betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable attention and importance by the police.
2. Civic-mindedness - a sense of duty and obligation to assist the police.
3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or of other impending danger.
4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes to report a crime that is preying on his conscience.
5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to obtain a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family during his detention.
6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury.
7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or possessions of another and wishes to humiliate him.
8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the pecuniary or other material gain he is to receive.

Information Warfare - The manipulation of information trusted by a target without the target's awareness to encourage them to make decisions against their own interest, but in the interest of the one conducting the manipulation.

Informers - refers to any person who provides information to the agents on a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a regular or case-to-case basis.      

Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to assist it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms a larger and clearer pattern. (intelligence as an activity)
- the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of all
available information that may have immediate or potential significance to the development and execution of plans, policies, and programs of the user.(intelligence as a product)
- an institution composed of person who prepares a plan or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution)

Intelligence Cycle
1. Planning
2. Collection
3. Processing
4. Dissemination

Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough knowledge of the available sources of information, the collecting agencies, and the type of information the latter can provide.

Collection - the intelligence officer must have a thorough knowledge of the available sources of information and collecting agencies and the type of information they can provide and consider the following:
a. Determine collecting agency
b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts
d. Use tools or techniques in the collection
e. Ensure timely collection

Factors in Choosing Collection Agents
a. Capability - agents placement or access to target
b. Multiplicity - more agents
c. Balance

Processing - Five Steps
1. Recording - the reduction of information in writing or other form of graphical representation and
arranging the information into groups of related items.
2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the information to the operation, reliability of the source or agency, and the accuracy of the information.

 Pertinence - does it hold some value to the current operation.
 Reliability - judging the source of information or agency
 Credibility - truth of information

3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected information is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts and derive conclusions therefrom.
4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated analysis with other known information related to the operation.
5. Interpretation - the process of determining the significance of new information and its meaning.

Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data are disseminated to end users, common methods of disseminating intel data are conferences, briefings, and person-to-person exchanges. In this process, consider the factors of timeliness, correctness , and security.

ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in Islamabad.

Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion included ten speculators who served as an information-collecting agency. The Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a
military organization. The military success of the Romans was aided by the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carriers which made intelligence transmittal very fast.

Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was credited for establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master of deceit who uses blackmail to obtain vital information to identify the enemies of Napoleon.

Kinds of Covert Operation

1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people and places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of subjects.

Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to make the observation.

Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle, group of people, organization, or object.

Safehouse - refers to a place where agents meet each other for purposes of debriefing and reporting.

Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants leave their messages to the other agents.

Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an attempt to elude the surveillant.

Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to detect surveillance.

Log - chronological records of activities that took place in the establishment under surveillance.

Methods of Surveillance
1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or suspect that a person is at or will come to a known location when you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped or when informants have told you that a crime is going to be committed.
2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the act of following a person.

Forms of Shadowing/Tailing

1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression of the subject's habits and associates is required.
2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special precautions, the subject may be aware of the surveillance, employed also when the subject is a material witness and must be protected from harm or other undesirable influences.
3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against losing the subject is employed where constant
surveillance is necessary.

2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular operational purpose.

3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a person believed to be in possession of vital information without his knowledge or suspicion.

4. Employment of Technical Means

Bugging - the use of equipment or tools to listen and record discreet conversations with other people.

Wiretapping - a method of collecting information through interception of telephone conversation.

5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of obtaining information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge information.

6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting information by merely using the different senses.

Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information
Information - all evaluated materials of every description including those derived from observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is produced.

Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information
1. Agent of Influence - an agent who uses authority to gain information.
2. Agent in Place - an agent who has been recruited within a highly sensitive target
3. Penetration Agent - an agent who has reached the enemy, gathered information and is able to get back without being caught.
4. Expendable Agent - an agent who leaks false information to the enemy.
5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into custody turned around and sent back to where he came from as an agent of his captors.

MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British government with foreign intelligence.

MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the People's Republic of China.

Mole - also known as a sleeper agent. Tasked with monitoring an organization or individual. A mole can spend years in the same place only responding to missions when assigned. They are trained to be visible but to keep their motives unknown.

Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation of the Israeli government, Its Director reports directly to the Israeli Prime Minister. It is one of the entities of the Israeli intelligence community along with AMAN (Military Intelligence) and SHIN BET (Internal Security)

Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the land, the people, their location, and the nature of their cities.

NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the primary intelligence-gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General reports directly to the President of the Philippines.

EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to activate the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the primary intel provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs to cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government agencies.

Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and other law violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and preventing a plan to commit crimes.

Categories of Police Intelligence
1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which is required by the national planners for the formulation of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long range.
2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of plans and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities undesirable to the police organization.
3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific objectives and is immediate in nature and necessary for more effective police planning and operation.

Components of Strategic Intelligence
1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign affairs and relations of government operations.
2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and utilization of natural and human resources to the industrial potential of the nation.
3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence - concerned with the operations and facilities of the military and civilians.

Functional Classification of Police Intelligence
1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.

Principles of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent
2. Intelligence is continuous
3. Intelligence must be useful
4. Intelligence operation requires imagination and foresight
5. intelligence must be available on time
6. Intelligence must be flexible
7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures

RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external intelligence agency. Its primary function is the collection of external intelligence, counter-terrorism, and covert operations.

Reliability of Information
A - Completely Reliable
B - Usually Reliable
C - Fairly Reliable
D - Not Usually Reliable
E - Unreliable
F - Reliability Can Not Be Judged

Saboteur - a spy or member of a clandestine organization who destroys machinery, bridges, equipment, or other products of the enemy.

Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible authority that the person described is clear to access and classify matters at appropriate levels.

Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years.
Final Clearance - effective for 5 years.

Security Measures and Operations in Relation To Intelligence
1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials,
documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage, or theft.
2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the application of various measures that prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication. This includes transmission, cryptographic, and physical security.
3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified matters, and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure.
4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed, inquiries conducted, and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a particular employee.

Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals, and loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's suitability for appointment and access to classified matters.

Types of PSI
1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of the records and files of the agency in the area of principal residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor, Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident.
2. National Agency Check - it consists of LAC supplemented by an investigation of the records and files of the following agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration, and other agencies.
3. Background Investigation - a check made on an individual usually seeking employment through the subject's records in the police files, educational institutions, place of residence, and former employers.

Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI that is more comprehensive, it consists of detailed information regarding the subject.

Partial Background Investigation - investigation of the background of an individual but limited only to some of the circumstances.

Sun Tzu - author of The Art of War.

Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising one's own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gain information or evidence.

Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying agent's real personality including but not limited to things, location, job, and others that will be used in undercover assignments.

Types of Cover
1. Artificial -altering the background that will correspond to the operation.
2. Multiple - includes different cover
3. Natural - actual or true background

Hazards of Undercover Operations
1. Reintegration back to normal duty
2. Maintenance of identity

Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment
1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the neighborhood of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident without causing any suspicion. His mission is to make friends within his neighborhood gather information regarding the subject and possibly get closer to the subject.
2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the subject by going to the different hangout places of the subject and gathering information like knowing how to drink socially without getting drunk.
3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where the subject works to acquire information. The agent must know his work and focus his mindset and habit on his work assignment
4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of all the undercover assignments, the agent will join the organization of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the group, and the actions while inside should conform to the organization to avoid any suspicion.

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