institutional corrections
Institutional Corrections

Institutional Corrections 
Definition Of Terms

Alcatraz - a US federal penitentiary, Often referred to as "The Rock",
the small island of alcatraz was developed with facilities for a lighthouse,
a military fortification, a military prison (1868), and a federal prison
from 1933 until 1963.

Alexander Maconochie - was a Scottish naval officer, geographer, and
penal reformer. He is known as the Father of Parole.

          His 2 Basic Principle of Penology
          1. As cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment
             should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform of
             the convict to observe social constraints, and
          2. A convict's imprisonment should consist of task, not time
             sentences, with release depending on the performance of a
             measurable amount of labour.

Auburn Prison - Constructed in 1816 ,(opened 1819) it was the second
state prison in New York, the site of the first execution by electric
chair in 1890. It uses the silent or congregate system.

Banishment - a punishment originating in ancient times, that required
offenders to leave the community and live elsewhere, commonly in the

BJMP - (Bureau of Jail Management and Penology) government agency
mandated by law (RA 6975) to take operational and administrative control
over all city, district and municipal jails.
It takes custody of detainees accused before a court who are temporarily
confined in such jails while undergoing investigation, waiting final
judgement and those who are serving sentence promulgated by the court
3 years and below.

          - created Jan. 2, 1991.
          - Charles S. Mondejar - 1st BJMP chief.
          - BJMP chief tour of duty, must not exceed 4 years, maybe
            extended by President. Grounds:
                                   1. In times of war
                                   2. other national emergencies.
          - Senior superintendent - the rank from which the BJMP chief
            is appointed. This is the rank of the BJMP Directors of
            the Directorates in the National Headquarters. This is also
            the rank of the Regional Director for Jail Management
            and Penology.
          - Chief of the BJMP - Highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed
            by the President upon recommendation of DILG Secretary. Rank
            is Director.
          - BJMP Deputy Chief for Administration - the 2nd highest ranking
            BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation
            of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
          - BJMP Deputy Chief for Operations - the 3rd highest ranking
            BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation
            of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
          - BJMP Chief of the Directorial Staff - the 4th highest BJMP
            officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation of
            the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendents.

Borstal - a custodial institution for young offenders.

Borstal System - rehabilitation method formerly used in Great Britain for
delinquent boys aged 16 to 21. The idea originated (1895) with the
Gladstone Committee as an attempt to reform young offenders. The first
institution was established (1902) at Borstal Prison, Kent, England.

Branding - stigmatizing is the process in which a mark, usually a symbol
or ornamental pattern, is burned into the skin of a living person, with
the intention that the resulting scar makes it permanent as a punishment
or imposing masterly rights over an enslaved or otherwise oppressed person.

Bridewell Prison and Workhouse - was the first correctional institution
in England and was a precursor of the modern prison. Built initially as
a royal residence in 1523, Bridewell Palace was given to the city of
London to serve as the foundation for as system of Houses of Correction
known as “Bridewells.” These institutions, eventually numbering 200 in
Britain, housed vagrants, homeless children, petty offenders,
disorderly women, prisoners of war, soldiers, and colonists sent
to Virginia.

Bridewell Prison and Hospital - was established in a former royal palace
in 1553 with two purposes: the punishment of the disorderly poor and
housing of homeless children in the City of London.

Bureau of Corrections - has for its principal task the rehabilitation
of national prisoners, or those sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment
of more than three years.

          - has 7 prison facilities
          - 1 prison institution for women
          - 1 vocational training centre for juveniles.
          - Classification Board - classifies inmates according to
            their security status.
          - Reception and Diagnostic Centre - (RDC) receives, studies
            and classifies inmates committed to Bureau of Corrections.
          - Board of Discipline - hears complaints and grievances with
            regard to violations of prison rules and regulations.
          - Iwahig Penal Farm - established in 1904 upon orders of Gov.
            Forbes, then the Sec. of Commerce and police.
          - New Bilibid Prison - established in 1941 in Muntinlupa
            Camp Bukang Liwayway - minimum security prison.
            Camp Sampaguita - medium security prison
          - Davao penal Colony - established jan 21, 1932 (RA 3732)
          - Sablayan Penal Colony and Farm - established Sept.27, 1954
            (Proclamation No.72) location:Occidental Mindoro
          - Leyte Regional Prison - established Jan.16, 1973
          - Old Bilibid Prison - First Penal Institution in the Phil.
            designated as insular penitentiary by Royal Decree in 1865.

Burning at Stake - a form of ancient punishment by tying the victim
in a vertical post and burning him/her.

Cesare Beccaria - an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher and
politician best known for his treaties On Crimes and Punishments (1764),
which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work
in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology

Charles Montesquieu - a french lawyer, who analyzed law as an expression
of justice. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation
of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world.

Code of Justinian -  formally Corpus Juris Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”),
Justinian I the collections of laws and legal interpretations developed
under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from AD
529 to 565.

Commitment Order - is an act of sending a person to prison by means of
such a warrant or order.

Correctional Administration - the study and practice of a system of
managing jails and prisons and other institutions concerned with the
custody, treatment and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

Corrections - describes a variety of functions typically carried out
by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and
supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.

Death Row - refers to incarcerated persons who have been sentenced to
death and are awaiting execution.

Deterrence - as contended by Cesare Beccaria, proponent of the
classical theory, that punishment is to prevent others from
committing crime.

Director Charles S. Mondejar - the first Chief of BJMP. He took his
oath of office on July 1 of   1991.

District Jail - is a cluster of small jails, each having a monthly
average population of ten or less inmates, and is located in the
vicinity of the court.

Draco - was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century
BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a
written code to be enforced only by a court.

Ducking Stool - a chair fastened to the end of a pole, used formerly
to plunge offenders into a pond or river as a punishment.

Dungeon - a dark cell, usually underground where prisoners are confined.

Elmira Reformatory - located in new York, was originally a prison opened
to contain Confederate prisoners of war during the Civil War. It became
known as a “death camp” because of the squalid conditions and high death
rate in its few years of operation. Established 1876.

Elmira System - An American penal system named after Elmira Reformatory,
in New York. In 1876 Zebulon R. Brockway became an innovator in the
reformatory movement by establishing Elmira Reformatory for young felons.
The Elmira system classified and separated various types of prisoners,
gave them individualized treatment emphasizing vocational training and
industrial employment, used indeterminate sentences.

Ergastulum - is a Roman prison used to confine slaves. They were attached
to work benches and forced to do hard labor in period of imprisonment.

Exemplarity - the criminal is punished to serve as an example to others
to deter further commission of crime.

Expiation - (Atonement) execution of punishment visibly or publicly for
the purpose of appeasing a social group. Expiation is a group vengeance
as distinguished from retribution.

First Women's Prison - opened in Indiana 1873. Based on the reformatory

Four Classes of Prisoners
   1. Insular or national prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term
      of three years and one day to death;
   2. Provincial prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of six
      months and one day to three years;
   3. City prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day
      to three years; and
   4. Municipal Prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of one
      day to six months.

Flogging - (Flog) beat (someone) with a whip or stick as a punishment.

Fred T. Wilkinson - last warden of the Alcatraz prison.

Galley - a low, flat ship with one or more sails and up to three banks
of oars, chiefly used for warfare or piracy and often manned by slaves
or criminals.

Goals of Criminal Sentencing
          1. Retribution
          2. Punishment
          3. Deterrence
          4. Incapacitation
          5. Rehabilitation
          6. Reintegration
          7. Restoration

Golden Age Of Penology - 1870 - 1880

Guillotine - an ancient form of capital punishment by cutting the

Halfway House - a center for helping former drug addicts, prisoners,
psychiatric patients, or others to adjust to life in general society.

Hammurabi's Code - an ancient code which contain both civil and criminal
law. First known codified law prior to Roman law. Better organized and
comprehensive than biblical law. One of its law is lex taliones (an eye
for an eye)

Hedonism - the ethical theory that pleasure (in the sense of the
satisfaction of desires) is the highest good and proper aim of human life.

Hulk - an old ship stripped of fittings and permanently moored,
especially for use as storage or (formerly) as a prison.

Impalement - (Impaling) a form of capital punishment, is the penetration
of an organism by an object such as a stake, pole, spear or hook, by
complete (or partial) perforation of the body, often the central body mass.
Killing by piercing the body with a spear or sharp pole.

Institutional Corrections - refers to those persons housed in secure
correctional facilities.

Jail - is defined as a place of confinement for inmates under investigation
or undergoing trial, or serving short-term sentences

          Gaol - old name/term of jail.

          Three Types of Detainees
          1. Those undergoing investigation;
          2. those awaiting or undergoing trial; and
          3. those awaiting final judgment

          Jails - holds
          a. Convicted offenders serving short sentences
          b. Convicted offenders awaiting transfer to prison
          c. Offenders who have violated their probation or parole
          d. Defendants who are awaiting trial

James V. Bennett - was a leading American penal reformer and prison
administrator who served as director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons
(FBOP) from 1937 to 1964. He was one of the strongest advocates in the
movement in persuading Congress to close Alcatraz and replace it with
a new maximum-security prison, eventually successful in 1963 when
it closed.

January 2, 1991 - the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology was
created thru Republic Act 6975 as a line Bureau under the Department
of Interior and Local Government.

Jean Jacques Villain - pioneered classification to separate women and
children from hardened criminals.

Jeremy Bentham - a prison reformer, believed that the prisoner should
suffer a severe regime, but that it should not be detrimental to the
prisoner's health. He designed the Panopticon in 1791.

John Howard - a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.

Justice - crime must be punished by the state as an act of retributive
justice, vindication of absolute right and moral law violated by the

lapidation - (Stoning) the act of pelting with stones; punishment
inflicted by throwing stones at the victim.

Lex Taliones - an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

Lockups - Suspects usually stay in a lockup for only 24 to 48 hours.
A suspect may later be transferred from the lockup to the jail.

Mamertine Prison -  was a prison (carcer) located in the Comitium
in ancient Rome. It was originally created as a cistern for a spring
in the floor of the second lower level. Prisoners were lowered through
an opening into the lower dungeon.

Mark System - developed in Australia by Alexander Maconochie, whereby
credits, or marks, were awarded for good behaviour, a certain number of
marks being required for release.

Mittimus - is a process issued by the court after conviction to carry
out the final judgment, such as commanding a prison warden to hold the
accused, in accordance with the terms of the judgment. Mittimus is
often attached on the commitment order issued by the court whenever the
convict is to be transferred to prison for service of sentence.

Mortality rate - A measure of the frequency of deaths in a defined
population during a specified interval of time.

Mutilation or maiming - an ancient form of punishment, is an act of
physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living
body, sometimes causing death.

National Prisons Association - was organized in Cincinnati in 1870.

Neo-Classical - children and lunatics should not be punished as they
can not calculate pleasure and pain.

          Classical Theory - pain must exceed pleasure to deter crime.
          All are punished regardless of age, mental condition, social
          status and other circumstances.

          Positivist Theory - criminal is a sick person and should be
          treated and not punished.

          Eclectic - it means selecting the best of various styles
          or ideas.

Newgate Prison - not a real prison but an abandoned copper mine of
Simsbury Connecticut. Inmates are confined underground (Black hole
of horrors).

Operational capacity - the number of inmates that can be accommodated
based on a facility's staff, existing programs, and services.

Panopticon - a prison design, allowed a centrally placed observer to
survey all the inmates, as prison wings radiated out from this
central position.

Parole - refers to criminal offenders who are conditionally released
from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the

Parole and Probation Administration (PPA) - was created pursuant to
Presidential Decree (P.D.) No.968, as amended, to administer the
probation system. Under Executive Order No. 292, the Probation
Administration was renamed as the Parole and Probation Administration,
and given the added function of supervising prisoners who, after serving
part of their sentence in jails are released on parole or granted
conditional pardon. The PPA and the Board of Pardons and Parole are
the agencies involved in the non-institutional treatment of offenders.

Penal Management - refers to the manner or practice of managing or
controlling places of confinement such as jails and prisons.

PD No. 603 - was promulgated to provide for the care and treatment of
youth offenders from the time of apprehension up to the termination
of the case.

          Under this law, a youth offender is defined as a child, minor
          or youth who is over nine years but under eighteen years of
          age at the time of the commission of the offence.

Pennsylvania and New York - pioneered the penitentiary movement by
developing two competing systems of confinement. The Pennsylvania
system and the Auburn system.

          Pennsylvania System - An early system of U.S. penology in
          which inmates were kept in solitary cells so that they could
          study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds, and
          perform handicraft work.(Solitary System).

          Auburn System - An early system of penology, originating
          at Auburn Penitentiary in New York, under which inmates
          worked and ate together in silence during the day and were
          placed in solitary cells for the evening.(Congregate System)

Penology - a branch of Criminology that deals with prison management
and reformation of criminals.

          Poene (latin) - penalty
          Logos (latin) - science

Pillory - a wooden framework with holes for the head and hands, in which
offenders were formerly imprisoned and exposed to public abuse.
Prison -  which refers to the national prisons or penitentiaries managed
and supervised by the Bureau of Corrections, an agency under the
Department of Justice.

Prison Hulks - (1776-1857) were ships which were anchored in the Thames,
and at Portsmouth and Plymouth. Those sent to them were employed in hard
labour during the day and then loaded, in chains, onto the ship at night.

Prison Reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons,
aiming at a more effective penal system.

Probation - Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over
an offender, ordered by a court instead of serving time in prison.

          John Augustus - Father of Probation. Augustus was born in Woburn,
          Massachusetts in 1785. By 1829, he was a permanent resident
          of Boston and the owner of a successful boot-making business.
          Father Cook - a chaplain of the Boston Prison visited the courts
          and gained acceptance as an advisor who made enquiries into the
          circumstances of both adult and juvenile offenders

Provincial Jail - under the office of the Governor. Where the imposable
penalty for the crime committed is more than six months and the same was
committed within the municipality, the offender must serve his or her
sentence in the provincial jail.

          Where the penalty imposed exceeds three years, the offender
          shall serve his or her sentence in the penal institutions of
          the Bureau of Corrections.

Punishment - the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution
for an offence.

Quakers - (or Friends, as they refer to themselves) are members of a
family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious
Society of Friends. Many Quakers have worked for reform of the criminal
justice systems of their day. Quakers believe that people can always
change: their focus has been on reforms that make positive change more
likely, such as increased opportunities for education, improved prison
conditions, help with facing up to violent impulses, and much else.

          William Penn - founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the
          English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of
          Pennsylvania.was the first great Quaker prison reformer.
          In his ‘Great Experiment’ in Pennsylvania in the 1680s he
          abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder.
          He also stated that ‘prisons shall be workhouses,’ that bail
          should be allowed for minor offences’, and ‘all prisons shall
          be free, as to fees, food and lodgings’. He provided for
          rehabilitation, as he stipulated that prisoners should be
          helped to learn a trade, so that they could make an honest
          living when they were released.

          John Bellers - (1654-1725) was the earliest British Friend to
          pay serious and systematic attention to social reform. He
          pleaded for the abolition of the death penalty, the first
          time this plea had been made. He argued that criminals were
          the creation of society itself and urged that when in prison
          there should be work for prisoners so that they might return
          to the world with an urge to industry.

          Elizabeth Fry -  (1780-1845) was the most famous of Quaker
          reformers, though others were equally influential in raising
          public awareness. Reforms such as the separation of women and
          children from men and the development of purposeful activity
          of work or education came about through pressure from
          informed people.

RA 6975 - sec.60 to 65, created the BJMP.

         Rank Classification of BJMP
               Chief Superintendent
               Senior Superintendent
               Chief Inspector
               Senior Inspector
               Senior Jail Officer IV
               Senior Jail Officer III
               Senior Jail Officer II
               Senior Jail Officer I
               Jail Officer III
               Jail Officer II
               Jail Officer I

RA 10575 - The Bureau of Corrections Act of 2013.

Rack - a form of torture or punishment wherein pain is inflicted to
to the body through stretching.

Rated Capacity - the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating
official to institutions within the jurisdiction.

Reformation - the object of punishment in a criminal case is to correct
and reform the offender.

Reformatory Movement - The reformatory movement was based on principles
adopted at the 1870 meeting of the National Prison Association.

          The reformatory was designed:
          a. for younger, less hardened offenders.
          b. based on a military model of regimentation.
          c. with indeterminate terms.
          d. with parole or early release for favorable progress
             in reformation.

Rehabilitation - to restore a criminal to a useful life, to a life in
which they contribute to themselves and to society.

Retribution - punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance for a wrong
or criminal act.

Security Level - A designation applied to a facility to describe the
measures taken, both inside and outside, to preserve security and custody.

          The simplest security level categorization is:
          a. maximum
          b. medium
          c. minimum

          Maximum - security facilities are characterized by very
          tight internal and external security.
          Common security measures include: (Maximum)
          - A high wall or razor-wire fencing
          - Armed-guard towers
          - Electronic detectors
          - External armed patrol
          - A wide, open buffer zone between the outer wall or fence
            and the community.
          - Restrictions on inmate movement
          - The capability of closing off areas to contain riots or

          Houses the following inmates:
          - Those sentenced to death
          - Those sentenced with min. 20 years
          - Those remanded inmates/detainees with min. 20 years sentence
          - Those whose sentences is under review by SC (min.20 years)
          - Those whose sentences is under appeal (min.20 years)
          - Those with pending cases
          - Those who are recidivist

          Ultra-Maximum/Super-Maximum Security Prison -  house notorious
          offenders and problem inmates from other institutions.
          These institutions utilize: Total isolation of inmates,
          Constant lockdowns

          Medium-security institutions - place fewer restrictions on
          inmate movement inside the facility.

          Characteristics often include:(Medium)
          - Dormitory or barracks-type living quarters
          - No external security wall
          - Barbed wire rather than razor wire
          - Fences and towers that look less forbidding

          Houses the following inmates:
          - Those sentenced to less than 20 years

          Minimum-security prisons - are smaller and more open.
          They often house inmates who:
          - Have established records of good behavior
          - Are nearing release

          Characteristics often include:(Minimum)
          - Dormitory or barracks living quarters
          - No fences
          - Some inmates may be permitted to leave during the day
            to work or study.
          - Some inmates may be granted furloughs

Sing Sing Prison - was the third prison built by New York State. It is a maximum-security prison.

Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise - was a British prison administrator and reformer, and founder of the Borstal system.

Sir Walter Crofton - the director of Irish prisons. In his program, known as the Irish system, prisoners progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. After that, prisoners were assigned to group work projects.

Stocks - an instrument of punishment consisting of a heavy timber frame with holes in which the feet and sometimes the hands of an offender can be locked.

Three major government functionaries involved in the Philippine correctional system:
1. DOJ

DOJ - supervises the national penitentiaries through the Bureau of Corrections, administers the parole and probation system through the Parole and Probation Administration, and assists the President in the grant of executive clemency through the Board of Pardons and Parole.

DILG - supervises the provincial, district, city and municipal jails through the provincial governments and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, respectively.

DSWD - supervises the regional rehabilitation centers for youth offenders through the Bureau of Child and Youth Welfare.

Transportation - a punishment in which offenders were transported from their home nation to one of that nation's colony to work.

Twelve Tables - The Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. Established basic procedural rights for all Roman citizens as against one another

Underground Cistern - a reservoir for storing liquids, an underground tank for storing water. This was also used in prison in ancient times.

Utilitarianism - a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it.

Voltaire - believes that fear of shame is a deterrent to crime.

Walnut Street Jail - opened in 1790 in Philadelphia. Considered the 1st state prison. Inmates labored in solitary cells and received large doses of religious training.

Workhouses - European forerunners of the modern U.S. prison, where offenders were sent to learn discipline and regular work habits.

Zebulon Reed Brockway - was a penologist and is sometimes regarded as the Father of prison reform and  Father of American Parole in the United States.