institutional corrections
Institutional Corrections

Institutional Corrections Reviewer (Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

Syllabi/Table of Specifications

1. Recall and explain the theories and principles of Penology, Punishment, Penalty, Sentencing, and Rehabilitation, including the rights, legal limitations, and conditions set forth by the Constitution, Law, and United Nations Declarations.  
2. Describe, understand and apply the functions, organization, administration, management, operations, planning, decision-making process, training, disciplinary process, and accountability of personnel in the BJMP, Provincial Jail, BUCOR, and other facilities. 
3. Explain, use, and analyze the admission process of persons deprived of liberty, release of persons deprived of liberty, security and safety processes and requirements of PDLs inside the institution, visitation, movement, and escorting procedure, the trial of PDLs, custody, control and disciplinary process of PDLs in the BJMP, Provincial Jail, BUCOR, and other facilities.
4. Understand, apply and evaluate the principles, management, planning, and decision-making of crises and incidents in the BJMP, Provincial Jail, BUCOR, and other facilities in case of riot, escape, hostage, contrabands, fire, food poisoning, flood, earthquake, typhoon, and other calamities and incidents.  

Alcatraz - a US federal penitentiary, Often referred to as "The Rock", the small island of Alcatraz was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison (1868), and a federal prison from 1933 until 1963.

Alexander Maconochie - was a Scottish naval officer, geographer, and penal reformer. He is known as the Father of Parole.

His 2 Basic Principles of Penology
1. As cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform of the convict to observe social constraints, and
2. A convict's imprisonment should consist of task, not time sentences, with release depending on the performance of a measurable amount of labor.

Auburn Prison - Constructed in 1816,(opened 1819) it was the second state prison in New York, the site of the first execution by electric chair in 1890. It uses the silent or congregate system.

Banishment - a punishment originating in ancient times, that required offenders to leave the community and live elsewhere, commonly in the wilderness.

BJMP - (Bureau of Jail Management and Penology) is government agency mandated by law (RA 6975) to take operational and administrative control over all city, district, and municipal jails. It takes custody of detainees accused before a court who are temporarily confined in such jails while undergoing investigation, waiting for final judgment, and those who are serving sentences promulgated by the court 3 years and below.

Created Jan. 2, 1991.

Charles S. Mondejar - 1st BJMP chief.

BJMP chief tour of duty, must not exceed 4 years, maybe extended by President.
1. In times of war
2. Other national emergencies.
Senior Superintendent - the rank from which the BJMP chief is appointed. This is the rank of the BJMP Directors of the Directorates in the National Headquarters. This is also the rank of the Regional Director for Jail Management and Penology.
Chief of the BJMP - Highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary. The rank is Director.
BJMP Deputy Chief for Administration - the 2nd highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary. The rank is Chief Superintendent.
BJMP Deputy Chief for Operations - the 3rd highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary. The rank is Chief Superintendent.
BJMP Chief of the Directorial Staff - the 4th highest BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary. The rank is Chief Superintendent.

Borstal - a custodial institution for young offenders.

Borstal System - rehabilitation method formerly used in Great Britain for delinquent boys aged 16 to 21. The idea originated (1895) with the Gladstone Committee as an attempt to reform young offenders. The first institution was established (1902) at Borstal Prison, Kent, England.

Branding - stigmatizing is the process in which a mark, usually a symbol or ornamental pattern, is burned into the skin of a living person, with the intention that the resulting scar makes it permanent as a punishment or imposing masterly rights over an enslaved or otherwise oppressed person.

Bridewell Prison and Workhouse - was the first correctional institution in England and was a precursor of the modern prison. Built initially as a royal residence in 1523, Bridewell Palace was given to the city of London to serve as the foundation for as system of Houses of Correction known as “Bridewells.” These institutions, eventually numbering 200 in Britain, housed vagrants, homeless children, petty offenders, disorderly women, prisoners of war, soldiers, and colonists sent
to Virginia.

Bridewell Prison and Hospital - was established in a former royal palace in 1553 with two purposes: the punishment of the disorderly poor and housing of homeless children in the City of London.

Bureau of Corrections - has for its principal task the rehabilitation of national prisoners, or those sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment of more than three years.

Has 7 prison facilities
1 prison institution for women
1 vocational training center for juveniles.
Classification Board - classifies inmates according to their security status.
Reception and Diagnostic Centre - (RDC) receives, studies, and classifies inmates committed to the Bureau of Corrections.
Board of Discipline - hears complaints and grievances with regard to violations of prison rules and regulations.
Iwahig Penal Farm - established in 1904 upon orders of Gov. Forbes, then the Sec. of Commerce and police.
New Bilibid Prison - established in 1941 in Muntinlupa
Camp Bukang Liwayway - minimum security prison.
Camp Sampaguita - medium-security prison
Davao Penal Colony - established jan 21, 1932 (RA 3732)
Sablayan Penal Colony and Farm - established Sept.27, 1954 (Proclamation No.72) location:Occidental Mindoro
Leyte Regional Prison - established Jan.16, 1973
Old Bilibid Prison - the First Penal Institution in the Phil. designated as an insular penitentiary by Royal Decree in 1865.

Burning at Stake - a form of ancient punishment by tying the victim in a vertical post and burning him/her.

Cesare Beccaria - an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology

Charles Montesquieu - a French lawyer, who analyzed law as an expression of justice. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world.

Code of Justinian -  formally Corpus Juris Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”), Justinian I the collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from AD 529 to 565.

Commitment Order - is an act of sending a person to prison by means of such a warrant or order.

Correctional Administration - the study and practice of a system of managing jails, prisons, and other institutions concerned with the custody, treatment, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

Corrections - describes a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes.

Death Row - refers to incarcerated persons who have been sentenced to death and are awaiting execution.

Detainees - are inmates still undergoing investigation, awaiting judgment or undergoing trial, or awaiting final judgment from the courts. 

Deterrence - as contended by Cesare Beccaria, the proponent of the classical theory, that punishment is to prevent others from committing crimes.

Director Charles S. Mondejar - the first Chief of BJMP. He took his oath of office on July 1, 1991.

District Jail - is a cluster of small jails, each having a monthly average population of ten or less inmates, and is located in the vicinity of the court.

Draco - was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court.

Ducking Stool - a chair fastened to the end of a pole, used formerly to plunge offenders into a pond or river as a punishment.

Dungeon - a dark cell, usually underground where prisoners are confined.

Elmira Reformatory - located in New York, was originally a prison opened to contain Confederate prisoners of war during the Civil War. It became known as a “death camp” because of the squalid conditions and high death rate in its few years of operation. Established 1876.

Elmira System - An American penal system named after Elmira Reformatory, in New York. In 1876 Zebulon R. Brockway became an innovator in the reformatory movement by establishing Elmira Reformatory for young felons. The Elmira system classified and separated various types of prisoners,
gave them individualized treatment emphasizing vocational training and industrial employment, used indeterminate sentences.

Ergastulum - is a Roman prison used to confine slaves. They were attached to work benches and forced to do hard labor during periods of imprisonment.

Exemplarity - the criminal is punished to serve as an example to others to deter further commission of crime.

Expiation - (Atonement) execution of punishment visibly or publicly for the purpose of appeasing a social group. Expiation is a group vengeance as distinguished from retribution.

First Women's Prison - opened in Indiana in 1873. Based on the reformatory model.

Four Classes of Prisoners
1. Insular or national prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of three years and one day to death;
2. Provincial prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of six months and one day to three years;
3. City prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to three years; and
4. Municipal Prisoner – one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to six months.

Flogging - (Flog) beat (someone) with a whip or stick as a punishment.

Fred T. Wilkinson - last warden of the Alcatraz prison.

Galley - a low, flat ship with one or more sails and up to three banks of oars, chiefly used for warfare or piracy and often manned by slaves or criminals.

Goals of Criminal Sentencing
1. Retribution
2. Punishment
3. Deterrence
4. Incapacitation
5. Rehabilitation
6. Reintegration
7. Restoration

Golden Age Of Penology - 1870 - 1880

Guillotine - an ancient form of capital punishment by cutting the head.

Halfway House - a center for helping former drug addicts, prisoners, psychiatric patients, or others to adjust to life in general society.

Hammurabi's Code - an ancient code that contains both civil and criminal law. First known codified law prior to Roman law. Better organized and comprehensive than biblical law. One of its laws is lex taliones (an eye for an eye)

Hedonism - the ethical theory that pleasure (in the sense of the satisfaction of desires) is the highest good and proper aim of human life.

Hulk - an old ship stripped of fittings and permanently moored, especially for use as storage or (formerly) as a prison.

Impalement - (Impaling) a form of capital punishment, is the penetration of an organism by an object such as a stake, pole, spear or hook, by complete (or partial) perforation of the body, often the central body mass. Killing by piercing the body with a spear or sharp pole.

Institutional Corrections - refers to those persons housed in secure correctional facilities.

Jail - is defined as a place of confinement for inmates under investigation or undergoing trial, or serving short-term sentences

Gaol - old name/term of jail.

Three Types of Detainees
1. Those undergoing investigation;
2. Those awaiting or undergoing trial; and
3. Those awaiting final judgment

Jails - holds
a. Convicted offenders serving short sentences
b. Convicted offenders awaiting transfer to prison
c. Offenders who have violated their probation or parole
d. Defendants who are awaiting trial

James V. Bennett - was a leading American penal reformer and prison administrator who served as director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP) from 1937 to 1964. He was one of the strongest advocates in the movement in persuading Congress to close Alcatraz and replace it with a new maximum-security prison, eventually successful in 1963 when it closed.

January 2, 1991 - The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology was created through Republic Act 6975 as a line Bureau under the Department of Interior and Local Government.

Jean Jacques Villain - pioneered classification to separate women and children from hardened criminals.

Jeremy Bentham - a prison reformer, believed that the prisoner should suffer a severe regime, but that it should not be detrimental to the prisoner's health. He designed the Panopticon in 1791.

John Howard - a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.

Justice - crime must be punished by the state as an act of retributive justice, vindication of absolute right and moral law violated by the criminal.

Justification of Punishment (RADIR)

1. Retribution - personal vengeance. Offenders should be punished because they deserve it.
2. Atonement/Expiation - the punishment is given as a form of group vengeance.
3. Deterrence - to give a lesson/discouragement
a. Specific deterrence - punishment gives lesson to the offender.
b. General deterrence - punishment of offenders warns potential offenders or gives lesson to others.
4. Incapacitation and Protection - the public will be protected if the offender is being held in a condition where he can not harm others especially the public.
5. Reformation and Rehabilitation - the establishment of the usefulness and responsibility of the offender.

Lapidation - (Stoning) the act of pelting with stones; punishment inflicted by throwing stones at the victim.

Lex Taliones - an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

Lockups - Suspects usually stay in a lockup for only 24 to 48 hours. A suspect may later be transferred from the lockup to the jail.

Mamertine Prison -  was a prison (carcer) located in the Comitium in ancient Rome. It was originally created as a cistern for a spring on the floor of the second lower level. Prisoners were lowered through
an opening into the lower dungeon.

Mark System - developed in Australia by Alexander Maconochie, whereby credits, or marks, were awarded for good behavior, a certain number of marks being required for release.

Mittimus - is a process issued by the court after conviction to carry out the final judgment, such as commanding a prison warden to hold the accused, in accordance with the terms of the judgment. Mittimus is often attached on the commitment order issued by the court whenever the convict is to be transferred to prison for service of sentence.

Mortality rate - A measure of the frequency of deaths in a defined population during a specified interval of time.

Mutilation or maiming - an ancient form of punishment, is an act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body, sometimes causing death.

National Prisons Association - was organized in Cincinnati in 1870.

Neo-Classical - children and lunatics should not be punished as they can not calculate pleasure and pain.

Classical Theory - pain must exceed pleasure to deter crime. All are punished regardless of age, mental condition, social status, and other circumstances.

Positivist Theory - A criminal is a sick person and should be treated and not punished.

Eclectic - it means selecting the best of various styles or ideas.

Newgate Prison - not a real prison but an abandoned copper mine in Simsbury Connecticut. Inmates are confined underground (Black hole of horrors).

Operational capacity - the number of inmates that can be accommodated based on a facility's staff, existing programs, and services.

Panopticon - a prison design, that allowed a centrally placed observer to survey all the inmates, as prison wings radiated out from this central position.

Parole - refers to criminal offenders who are conditionally released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the community.

Parole and Probation Administration (PPA) - was created pursuant to Presidential Decree (P.D.) No.968, as amended, to administer the probation system. Under Executive Order No. 292, the Probation
Administration was renamed as the Parole and Probation Administration, and given the added function of supervising prisoners who, after serving part of their sentence in jails are released on parole or granted a conditional pardon. The PPA and the Board of Pardons and Parole are the agencies involved in the non-institutional treatment of offenders.

Penal Management - refers to the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of confinement such as jails and prisons.

PD No. 603 - was promulgated to provide for the care and treatment of youth offenders from the time of apprehension up to the termination of the case.

Under this law, a youth offender is defined as a child, minor, or youth who is over nine years but under eighteen years of age at the time of the commission of the offense.

Pennsylvania and New York - pioneered the penitentiary movement by developing two competing systems of confinement. The Pennsylvania system and the Auburn system.

Pennsylvania System - An early system of U.S. penology in which inmates were kept in solitary cells so that they could study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds and perform handicraft work.(Solitary System).

Auburn System - An early system of penology, originating at Auburn Penitentiary in New York, under which inmates worked and ate together in silence during the day and were placed in solitary cells for the evening. (Congregate System)

Penology - a branch of Criminology that deals with prison management and reformation of criminals.

Poene (latin) - penalty
Logos (latin) - science

Pillory - a wooden framework with holes for the head and hands, in which offenders were formerly imprisoned and exposed to public abuse.
Prison -  which refers to the national prisons or penitentiaries managed and supervised by the Bureau of Corrections, an agency under the Department of Justice.

Prisoners - are inmates who are already serving prison terms.

There are generally four types of prisoners:
1. Insular or national prisoner – serving a prison sentence of three years and one day of prison term  to death;
2. Provincial prisoner – serving a prison sentence of six months and one day to three years;
3. City prisoner – serving a prison sentence of one day to three years; 
4. Municipal Prisoner – serving a prison sentence of one day to six months.

Prison Hulks - (1776-1857) were ships anchored in the Thames, and at Portsmouth and Plymouth. Those sent to them were employed in hard labor during the day and then loaded, in chains, onto the ship at night.

Prison Reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system.

Probation - Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by a court instead of serving time in prison.

John Augustus - Father of Probation. Augustus was born in Woburn, Massachusetts in 1785. By 1829, he was a permanent resident of Boston and the owner of a successful boot-making business.
Father Cook - a chaplain of the Boston Prison visited the courts and gained acceptance as an advisor who made enquiries into the circumstances of both adult and juvenile offenders

Provincial Jail - under the office of the Governor. Where the impossible penalty for the crime committed is more than six months and the same was committed within the municipality, the offender must serve his or her sentence in the provincial jail.

Where the penalty imposed exceeds three years, the offender shall serve his or her sentence in the penal institutions of the Bureau of Corrections.

Punishment - the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense.

Origin and History of Punishment

The oldest written penal law that stopped the ancient practice of retribution or personal vengeance, and punishment becomes the responsibility of the state.

This law is known as the "Code of Hammurabi", which King Hammurabi of Babylon promulgated.

This Code of Laws was a compilation of the laws of the Semitic tribes and is written in stone. It instituted the law of the talons, meaning that the State will meet out punishment equally, as "an eye for an eye" or "a tooth for a tooth".

Punishment during Primitive Society

1. Death Penalty - this was carried out by burning, boiling in oil, breaking at the wheel, drowning, hanging, etc.
2. Physical torture - this was the so-called corporal punishment, which was carried out by mutilation, maiming, whipping, etc.
3. Social degradation - the purpose of this was to put the offender to shame or humiliation. This was effected by branding, the use of ducking stools, stocks, pillories, etc.
4. Banishment - this is the sending or putting away of an offender which was carried out either by a prohibition against coming into a specified territory, or a prohibition against going outside a specified territory, such as an island to where the offender has been removed.

Contemporary Forms of Punishment

a. Imprisonment - putting offenders in a prison for the purpose of protecting the public and at the same time rehabilitating them by undergoing institutional treatment programs.

b. Parole - is defined as a procedure by which prisoners are selected for release on the basis of individual response and progress within the correctional institute and service by which they are provided with necessary guidance as they serve the remainder of their sentence in the free community.

c. Probation - it is a procedure under which a defendant found guilty of a crime is released by the court without imprisonment subject to the condition imposed by the court and subject to the supervision of the probation officer.

d. Fine - an amount is given as compensation for a criminal act.

e. Destierro - the penalty of banishing a person from the place where he committed a crime, prohibiting him to get near or enter the 25- kilometer perimeter.

Justification of Punishment

Retribution - Punishment of an offender was carried out in the form of personal vengeance. Since retaliatory acts result in the infliction of greater injury, the retaliation was later limited to the degree of injury inflicted, giving rise to the "An Eye for an Eye" philosophy.

Expiation or Atonement -this was in the form of group vengeance, as distinguished from retribution, where punishment is exacted publicly for the purpose of appeasing the social group. Punishing the offender gives the community a sense of its moral
superiority, and assurance that virtue is regarded after all.

Deterrence or Exemplarity - Punishment gives a lesson to the offender by showing others what will happen to them if they violate the law.

Protection - by placing offenders in prison, society is protected from further criminal depredation of criminals.

Reformation -society's interest can be best served by helping the prisoner become a law- abiding citizen and productive upon his return to the community by requiring him to undergo an intensive program of rehabilitation.

Constitutional Restrictions on Penalties -The Constitutional directs that "excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted". (Sec. 21 Art. IV, 1973 Constitutions of the Philippines).

Quakers - (or Friends, as they refer to themselves) are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends. Many Quakers have worked for reform of the criminal justice systems of their day. Quakers believe that people can always change: their focus has been on reforms that make positive change more likely, such as increased opportunities for education, improved prison conditions, help with facing up to violent impulses, and much else.

William Penn - founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.was the first great Quaker prison reformer. In his ‘Great Experiment’ in Pennsylvania in the 1680s he abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder.
He also stated that ‘prisons shall be workhouses,’ that bail should be allowed for minor offenses’, and ‘all prisons shall be free, as to fees, food, and lodgings’. He provided for rehabilitation, as he stipulated that prisoners should be helped to learn a trade so that they could make an honest living when they were released.

John Bellers - (1654-1725) was the earliest British Friend to pay serious and systematic attention to social reform. He pleaded for the abolition of the death penalty, the first time this plea had been made. He argued that criminals were the creation of society itself and urged that when in prison there should be work for prisoners so that they might return to the world with an urge to industry.

Elizabeth Fry -  (1780-1845) was the most famous of Quaker reformers, though others were equally influential in raising public awareness. Reforms such as the separation of women and children from men and the development of purposeful activity of work or education came about through pressure from
informed people.

RA 6975 - sec.60 to 65, created the BJMP.

Rank Classification of BJMP

Chief Superintendent               
Senior Superintendent             
Chief Inspector              
Senior Inspector              
Senior Jail Officer IV              
Senior Jail Officer III              
Senior Jail Officer II               
Senior Jail Officer I              
Jail Officer III               
Jail Officer II               
Jail Officer I

RA 10575 - The Bureau of Corrections Act of 2013.

Rack - a form of torture or punishment wherein pain is inflicted on the body through stretching.

Rated Capacity - the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to institutions within the jurisdiction.

Reformation - the object of punishment in a criminal case is to correct and reform the offender.

Reformatory Movement - The reformatory movement was based on principles adopted at the 1870 meeting of the National Prison Association.

The reformatory was designed:
a. for younger, less hardened offenders.
b. based on a military model of regimentation.
c. with indeterminate terms.
d. with parole or early release for favorable progress in reformation.

Rehabilitation - to restore a criminal to a useful life, to a life in which they contribute to themselves and to society.

Retribution - punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance for a wrong or criminal act.

Security Level - A designation applied to a facility to describe the measures taken, both inside and outside, to preserve security and custody.

The simplest security level categorization is:
a. maximum
b. medium
c. minimum

Maximum-security facilities are characterized by very tight internal and external security.
Common security measures include: (Maximum)
- A high wall or razor-wire fencing
- Armed-guard towers
- Electronic detectors
- External armed patrol
- A wide, open buffer zone between the outer wall or fence and the community.
- Restrictions on inmate movement
- The capability of closing off areas to contain riots or disruptions.

Houses the following inmates:
- Those sentenced to death
- Those sentenced with min. 20 years
- Those remanded inmates/detainees with min. 20 years sentence
- Those whose sentences are under review by SC (min.20 years)
- Those whose sentences are under appeal (min.20 years)
- Those with pending cases
- Those who are recidivists

Ultra-Maximum/Super-Maximum Security Prison - houses notorious offenders and problem inmates from other institutions.
These institutions utilize: Total isolation of inmates, Constant lockdowns

Medium-security institutions - place fewer restrictions on inmate movement inside the facility.

Characteristics often include:(Medium)
- Dormitory or barracks-type living quarters
- No external security wall
- Barbed wire rather than razor wire
- Fences and towers that look less forbidding

Houses the following inmates:
- Those sentenced to less than 20 years

Minimum-security prisons - are smaller and more open.
They often house inmates who:
- Have established records of good behavior
- Are nearing release

Characteristics often include:(Minimum)
- Dormitory or barracks living quarters
- No fences
- Some inmates may be permitted to leave during the day to work or study.
- Some inmates may be granted furloughs

Sing Sing Prison - was the third prison built by New York State. It is a maximum-security prison.

Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise - was a British prison administrator, reformer, and founder of the Borstal system.

Sir Walter Crofton - the director of Irish prisons. In his program, known as the Irish system, prisoners progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. After that, prisoners were assigned to group work projects.

Stocks - an instrument of punishment consisting of a heavy timber frame with holes in which the feet and sometimes the hands of an offender can be locked.

Three major government functionaries involved in the Philippine correctional system:
1. DOJ

DOJ - supervises the national penitentiaries through the Bureau of Corrections, administers the parole and probation system through the Parole and Probation Administration, and assists the President in the grant of executive clemency through the Board of Pardons and Parole.

DILG - supervises the provincial, district, city, and municipal jails through the provincial governments and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, respectively.

DSWD - supervises the regional rehabilitation centers for youth offenders through the Bureau of Child and Youth Welfare.

Transportation - a punishment in which offenders were transported from their home nation to one of that nation's colonies to work.

Twelve Tables - The Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. Established basic procedural rights for all Roman citizens as against one another

Underground Cistern - a reservoir for storing liquids, an underground tank for storing water. This was also used in prison in ancient times.

Utilitarianism - a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it.

Voltaire - believes that fear of shame is a deterrent to crime.

Walnut Street Jail - opened in 1790 in Philadelphia. Considered the 1st state prison. Inmates labored in solitary cells and received large doses of religious training.

Workhouses - European forerunners of the modern U.S. prison, where offenders were sent to learn discipline and regular work habits.

Zebulon Reed Brockway - was a penologist and is sometimes regarded as the Father of prison reform and the Father of American Parole in the United States.

You may want to read: