Police Intelligence Reviewer
Accuracy of Information
1 - Confirmed By Other Sources
2 - Probably True
3 - Possibly True
4 - Doubtfully True
5 - Improbable
6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged
Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to identify those
who are disloyal to him by ordering the opening of communication
letter of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de corps
and morale of his men.
ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary responsibility
is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interest
using agents stationed in wide variety of areas. Its main purpose like
other most agencies is to protect the country's political and
economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against
Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence Service, is the
foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the BND act as
the early warning system to alert the German government against
threats to its interest coming from abroad.
Categories of Intelligence
1. National Intelligence - integrated product of intelligence
developed by all government departments concerning the broad
aspect of national policy and national security.
2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the
department or agencies of the government to execute iys mission
and discharge its responsibilities.
3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge by the military
institution essential in the preparation and execution of military
plans, policies and programs.
CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence agency
of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world.
Classifications of Documents
1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection, Unauthorized
revelation of this materials and information will cause extremely
severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or
2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things may
put at risk the national security, cause serious injury to the
reputation of the nation.
3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious
to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or will
cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury.
4. Restricted - this are information which should not be published
or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. These
records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or
destroyed will not affect operation or administration.
Classification of Sources of Information
1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected are coming from
open sources or obtained from overt operation.
2. Close Sources - only 1% of information are obtained from covert
Elements of Clandestine Operation
1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the clandestine
2. Target - person, place or things against which the
clandestine activity is to be conducted.
3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts the clandestine
operations, includes principal agents, action agents,
and support agents.
Principal Agent - leader or management agent in clandestine
operation usually undertaken by the case officer.
Action Agent - one who conducts the clandestine operation
a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely procure or
b. Propagandist - agents who molds the attitudes, opinions
and actions of an individual group or nation.
Support Agent - agent who is engaged in activities which
supports the clandestine operations that includes the ff:
a. Surveillant - agent who observes persons and places
of operation of interest.
b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure
information or things of clandestine operation.
Procurer of Funds - agent who obtains money when needed
for operational use.
Safe House Keeper - agents who manages and maintains a safe
house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe heavens,
training, briefing and debriefing.
Communication Agent - agent who is detailed to secure
Coding - the changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible
form, also known as encrypting.
Decoding - transforming of coded message into plain text, also
known as decrypting.
Counter Intelligence - phase of intelligence covering the activity
devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities
and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and
Types of Counter Intelligence
1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and sensitive
information against unauthorized access through secrecy,
communication security and other safeguards.
2. Active CI Measures - are those measures which seek actively
to block enemies effort to gain information or engage in
espionage, subversion and sabotage.
Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations
1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken by a
command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation,
sabotage, subversion, or surprise.
2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both
military and civil security measures for counter-intelligence
control at point of entry and departure, international borders
3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence
measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently
or temporarily residing in an area under military
4. Special Operations - counter subversion, sabotage and espionage.
Objectives of Counter-Intelligence
1. It denies information to the enemy
2. It reduces the risk of a command
3. Aid in achieving surprises
4. Increases the security of the command
5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information
about he forces.
Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence
1. Protection of Information against espionage
2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and materials against sabotage
Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers.
Crypto Analyst - refers to those persons who break intercepted codes.
Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting
message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and ciphers.
Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain information
by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the fall of
Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines.
Frederick The Great - Father of organized military espionage.
FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is the main
domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the main
successor of the Cheka, NKVD and the KGB.
General Directorate For External Security - France external
intelligence agency, operating under the direction of the french
Ministry of Defense.
Informants - any person who hand over information to the agents which
is relevant to the subject.
Type of Informants
1. Anonymous - unidentified or unknown informants.
2. False Informant - reveals information of no consequences
3. Frightened Informants - weakest link in criminal chain,
motivated by anxiety.
4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the the center of criminals
delight in surprising the police about bits of information.
5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for exchange
6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from the police
more than what he gives.
7. Women Informant - most dangerous type of informant.
8. Legitimate - operators of business.
Motives of Informants
1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting to
self betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable
attention and importance by the police.
2. Civic-Mindedness - sense of duty and obligation to assist
3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or
of other impending danger.
4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes to
report a crime that is preying on his conscience.
5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to obtain
a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family
during his detention.
6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury.
7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or possessions of
another and wishes to humiliate him.
8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the pecuniary
or other material gain he is to receive.
Informers - refers to any person who provides information to the agents
in a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a
regular or case to case basis.
Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to assist
it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and
clear pattern. (intelligence as an activity)
- the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all
available information which may have immediate or potential
significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and
programs of the user.(intelligence as a product)
- an institution composed of person who prepares a plan
or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution)
Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough
knowledge of the available sources of information, the
collecting agencies and type of information the latter can
Collection - the intelligence officer must have thorough
knowledge of the available sources of information and
collecting agencies and the type of information they can
provide and consider the following:
a. Determine collecting agency
b. Send orders or request
c. Supervise collection efforts
d. Use tools or techniques in collection
e. Ensure timely collection
Factors in Choosing Collection Agents
a. Capability - agents placement or access to target
b. Multiplicity - more agents
Processing - Five Steps
1. Recording - is the reduction of information in writing
or other form of graphical representation and
arranging the information into groups of related items.
2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the
information to the operation, reliability of the source or
agency and the accuracy of the information.
Pertinence - does it holds some value to current
Reliability - judging the source of information or
Credibility - truth of information
3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected information
is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts
and derive conclusions there from.
4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated
analysis with other known information related to the
5. Interpretation - process of determining the significance of
new information and its meaning.
Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data are
disseminated to end users, common methods of disseminating intel
data are conferences, briefing and person to person exchanges.
In this process, consider the factors of timeliness, correctness
ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence
agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in Islamabad.
Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion includes ten
speculators who served as an information collecting agency. The
Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a
military organization. Military success of the Romans was aided by
the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carrier which made
intelligence transmittal very fast.
Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was credited for
establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master of
deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information to identify
the enemy's of Napoleon.
Kinds of Covert Operation
1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people and
places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the
identities or activities of subjects.
Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to
make the observation.
Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle,
group of people, organization, or object.
Safe house - refers to place where agents meet each other
for purposes of debriefing and reporting.
Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants
leave their messages to the other agents.
Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an attempt
to elude the surveillant.
Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to
Log - chronological records of activities that took place
in the establishment under surveillance.
Methods of Surveillance
1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or
Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or suspect
that a person is at or will come to a known location, when
you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped or when
informants have told you that a crime is going to be
2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the act
of following a person.
Forms of Shadowing/Tailing
1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression
of the subject's habits and associates is required.
2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special
precautions, subject maybe aware of the surveillance,
employed also when the subject is a material
witness and must be protected from harm or other
3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against
losing the subject is employed where constant
surveillance is necessary.
2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine
its suitability for a particular operational purpose.
3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a person
believe to be in possession of vital information without his
knowledge or suspicion.
4. Employment of Technical Means
Bugging - the use of an equipment or tool to listen and
record discreetly conversation of other people.
Wiretapping - a method of collecting information through
interception of telephone conversation.
5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of obtaining
information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge
6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting
information by just merely using the different senses.
Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information
Information - all evaluated materials of every description
including those derived from observation, reports, rumors,
imagery and other sources from which intelligence is produced.
Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information
1. Agent of Influence - agent who uses authority to gain
2. Agent in Place - agent who has been recruited within a highly
3. Penetration Agent - agent who have reached the enemy, gather
information and able to get back without being caught.
4. Expendable Agent - agent who leaks false information to the
5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into custody
turned around and sent back where he came from as an agent
of his captors.
MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British government
of foreign intelligence.
MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the
Peoples Republic of China.
Mole - also known as sleeper agent. Tasked with monitoring an
organization or individual. A mole can spend years in the same place
only responding to missions when assigned. They are trained to be
visible but to keep their motives unknown.
Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is
responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation of
the Israel government, Its Director reports directly to the
Israel Prime Minister. It is one of the entities of the Israeli
intelligence community along with AMAN (Military Intelligence) and
SHIN BET (Internal Security)
Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the land,
the people, their location and the nature of their cities.
NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the primary
intelligence gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is
Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is
assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General reports
directly to the President of the Philippines.
EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to activate
the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance
Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the primary intel
provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the
supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the
NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAV's to
cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government
Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available
information regarding the activities of criminals and other law
violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining evidence
and prevent plan to commit crimes.
Categories of Police Intelligence
1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the
capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which
is required by the national planners for the formulation
of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long
2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of plans
and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities
undesirable to the police organization.
3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information
directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific
objectives and immediate in nature and necessary for more
effective police planning and operation.
Components of Strategic Intelligence
1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign
affairs and relations of government operations.
2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and utilization
of natural and human resources to the industrial potential
of the nation.
3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence - concerned
with the operations and facilities of the military and
Functional Classification of Police Intelligence
1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential
to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest
and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge
essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge
essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.
Principles of Intelligence
1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent
2. Intelligence is continuous
3. Intelligence must be useful
4. Intelligence operation requires imagination and foresight
5. intelligence must be available on time
6. Intelligence must be flexible
7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures
RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external intelligence
agency. Its primary function is collection of external intelligence,
counter-terrorism and covert operations.
Reliability of Information
A - Completely Reliable
B - Usually Reliable
C - Fairly Reliable
D - Not Usually Reliable
E - Unreliable
F - Reliability Can Not Be Judge
Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible authority
that the person described is clear to access and classify matters
at appropriate levels.
Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years.
Final Clearance - effective for 5 years.
Security Measures and Operations in Relation To Intelligence
1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is concerned
with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and
prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials,
documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage,
2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the
application of various measures which prevent or delay the enemy
or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication.
This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical security.
3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified matters
and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage,
theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure.
4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed, inquiries
conducted and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to
a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a
Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the
character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and
loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's
suitability for appointment and access to classified matters.
Types of PSI
1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of the
records and files of agency in the area of principal
residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor,
Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident.
2. National Agency Check - it consist of LAC supplemented by
investigation of the records and files of the following
agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration
and other agencies.
3. Background Investigation - a check made on an individual
usually seeking employment through subject's records in
the police files, educational institutions, place of
residence and former employers.
Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI which
is more comprehensive, it consist of detailed information
regarding the subject.
Partial Background Investigation - investigation of the
background of an individual but limited only to some of
Sun Tzu - author of the art of war.
Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising one's
own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of
gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret
information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order
to gain information or evidence.
Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying agent's
real personality including but not limited to things, location,
job and others that will be used in undercover assignments.
Types of Cover
1. Artificial -altering the background that will correspond
to theh operation.
2. Multiple - includes different cover
3. Natural - actual or true background
Hazards of Undercover Operations
1. Reintegration back to normal duty
2. Maintenance of identity
Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment
1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the neighborhood
of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident
without making any suspicion. His mission is to make friends
within its neighborhood and gather information regarding
the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject.
2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the subject
by going to the different hangout places of the subject and
gather information like knowing how to drink socially
without getting drunk.
3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where the subject
work to acquire information. The agent must know his work and
focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment
4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of all
the undercover assignment, the agent will join the organization
of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the
group and the actions while inside should conform to the
organization to avoid any suspicion.