Law Enforcement Organization and Administration (Inter-Agency Approach)

Syllabi/Table of Specification

1. Explain and execute the principles of organization, management, and administration;

2. Compare and distinguish the organization of law enforcement and public safety agencies as provided under E.O. 292 Series of 1987 and other relevant laws;

3. Relate and adapt the powers, functions, and organizational structures of various law enforcement and public safety agencies.

The promulgation of Republic Act 6975, otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Act of 1990, operationalized and initiated the call for a tangible reform in the country's public safety services particularly for the uniformed bureaus under DILG.

Pursuant to Republic Act No. 6975 as amended by Republic Act No. 8551, also known as "Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998". The PNP is under the administrative control and operational supervision of the National Police Commission. Meanwhile, the NAPOLCOM is an attached agency of the Department of the Interior and Local Government for policy and program coordination.

Elements of Police Organization

1. Unity of Command -dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of orders.
2. Span of Control - the ability of one man to direct, coordinate, and control immediate subordinates.
3. Delegation of Authority - conferring of certain specified authority by a superior to subordinate.
4. Hierarchy of Authority -the relationship between superiors and subordinates.
5. Specialization -the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks which are highly technical and require special skills and training.
6. Chain of Command -the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority.
7. Command Responsibility -dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and control of their personnel and unit.

Evolution of Policing System

Babylonians -Principle LEX TALIONES

Code of King Hammurabi (2100 B.C) - (oldest harsh code)

Sumerian Code - 2300 B.C 
- Sumerians Lipithstar & Eshumma -set standards on what constituted an offense against society.

Greek - Ancient Greece
- Ephori (law enforcers)

Egyptians (1500 B.C)
-Court system presided by judges appointed by the Pharoah;
1. Marine patrol & custom house officers protecting commerce started;
2. first use of dog patrol;
3. Medjays - civilian police under the command of a military.

Emperor Justinian- created the Justinian Code which became known as Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Law).

Emperor Augustus - created the:
1. Praetorian Guard
2. Urban Cohorts (City Patrol) and the
3. Vigiles (fire fighters)


Ancient Rome - 12 Tabulae (12 Tables) - the first written laws

Anglo-Saxon Period (England: 849-899)-Time of King Alfred

1. Tun Policing - Tun (Town): Frankpledge system - 10 male residents as guardians of the town known as tythings (10 family representative). 
In medieval England, frankpledge was a system of law enforcement and policing in which members of society were mutually responsible for the behavior of their peers.
2. Hue and Cry - Complainant shouts for the mandatory assembly of men to catch the culprit.
Horn - oldest known warning device.
3. Royal Judge - investigates and punishes
4. Trial by Ordeal - painful test of guilt/innocence.

Normal Period of Policing

1. Shire-Rieve - shire (district/country) rieve (ruler) later called Sheriff - England was divided into 55 military districts under the control of a rieve.
2. Travelling Judge - renders judgment and gives punishment.
3. Legis Henri - Law of King Henri I - policemen were considered public officials.
4. Magna Carta - Magna Carta was a charter of liberties that the English Barons forced King John to sign in 1215.
5. Knights of the Round Table - beginning of national/local government and legislation.

Winchester Period

1. Statute of Winchester- 1285 - Watchmen (16 heads).
2. Statute of 1295 - gate of London close at sundown - curfew system adopted.
3. Justice of the Peace - a position with power to arrest, pursue and impose punishment.
4. Star Chamber Court - special court to try offenses against the state.

Functions in a Police Organization

1. Primary or Line Functions - a functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services and dealing directly with the public.
2. Staff/Administrative Functions - a functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance of the line functions.
3.Auxiliary Functions- functions involving the logistical operations of the organization. Examples are: 
a. communication, 
c.records management, and equipment management.

Theories of Police Service

1. Home Rule Theory
a. policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of their functions upon the express needs of the people.
b. policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and security.

2. Continental Theory
a. policemen are regarded as servants of the higher authorities.
b. the people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with the police organization.

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