Trafficking in persons different from Illegal Recruitment

How is trafficking in persons different from illegal recruitment and human smuggling?

Trafficking in Persons may or may not involve coercion, fraud, deception, abuse of vulnerability, etc. Characterized by subsequent exploitation after the illegal entry of one person from one place to another or one country to another. There is a need to prove the presence of exploitation or that the recruitment was facilitated for the purpose of exploitation. Considered a human rights issue.

Illegal Recruitment usually does not involve coercion but uses more deception, promises, and fraud. Characterized by facilitating the entry of one person from one country to another through an unorganized or unlicensed agency. Mere recruitment without a license is punishable, no need to prove the consequential exploitation. Considered a migration concern.

Human Smuggling does not involve coercion. Characterized by facilitating for a fee, the illegal entry of a person into a foreign country. Proof of illegal entry by non-compliance with the necessary requirements for travel. Considered a migration concern.

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