special crime investigation reviewer
Special Crime

Special Crime Investigation Reviewer with Interrogation and Interview (Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

Admission - Any statement of fact made by a party which is against his interest or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he contends or inconsistent with the facts alleged by him.

AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.

Amateur Intermittent Offender - These types of robbers view themselves as lifetime robbers and commit infrequent robbery offenses, often recklessly.

Armed Robbery - This involves the use of weapons such as a firearm, a knife, or other dangerous weapons.

Animus Lucrandi - means intent to gain, in Robbery.

Bienes Muebles - in Robbery, means personal property belonging to another.

Arrest - The legal taking of a person into custody in order that he may be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.    

Arrest Warrant - An order in writing issued in the name of the Philippines commanding or directing a peace officer to arrest the person described therein and brings it before the court.

The warrant of arrest is to be served within a statutory period of 10 days.

The warrant  of arrest validity continues unless:
1. Recalled by the issuing court
2. The respondent has been arrested
3. Respondent voluntary submitted himself

Arson - An act of willfully and maliciously damaging or destroying a building or other property by fire or explosion.

Autopsy - known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, autopsia cadaverum, or obduction, is a highly specialized surgical procedure cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

Accused - A person whose case was forwarded to the office of the prosecutor and filed in court.

Baseline - a method of locating objects, particularly useful in large, irregularly shaped outdoor areas.

Confession - An express acknowledgment by the accused in a criminal prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charged, while admission refers to statements of fact not directly constituting
an acknowledgment of guilt.

Corpus Delicti - Latin for the “body of the crime”.

Crime - A generic term referring to many types of misconduct forbidden by law.

Crime Scene - A venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event has been committed.

Criminal - A person who is convicted by final judgment.

Criminalist - The officer responsible for recording a crime scene and
recognizing and preserving physical evidence.

Criminal Investigation - The collection of facts in order to accomplish the three-fold aims – 
1. to identify the guilty party, 
2. to locate the guilty party and 
3. to provide evidence of his (suspect) guilt.

Criminal Investigator - A well-trained, disciplined and experienced professional in the field of criminal investigation.

Criminal Law - One that defines crimes treats of their nature and provides for their punishment.

Crime Scene - The geographical area where the crime was committed.

Crime Scene Sketch -  A simple diagram that creates a mental picture of the scene for those who are not present.

Rough Sketch -  The first pencil-drawn outline of the scene and the location of objects and evidence within this outline.

DNA Profiling - (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.

DNA Fingerprinting - is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), of a person's cells.

Early Techniques of Crime Investigation

Archimedes (287–212 BC) invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape.

Book of Xi Yuan Lu - The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele - he devised in 1773 a method for detecting arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses.

Henry Goddard - at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of bullet comparison in 1835.

Alphonse Bertillon - was the first to apply the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements.

Sir William Herschel - was one of the first to advocate the use of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects.

English Constable - early recorded professional criminal investigator.

Evidence -  The means by which facts are proved.

Forcible Rape - Sexual intercourse carried out against a person’s will by the use of physical violence.

Four Basic Techniques That Can Be Used To Measure A Crime Scene
1. Rectangular/Coordinate System
2. Baseline/Station Line
3. Triangulation/Trilateration
4. Azimuth/Polar Coordinates

Azimuth - uses polar coordinates. This method requires two people; one to hold each end of a tape measure. This type of measuring convention is best suited for large open areas where there might not be any fixed reference points. A known starting point must be established in your scene which might require pounding in a stake. That point is located by using a handheld GPS (global positioning system). A large protractor or some other type of board marked with a circle and degree increments is used. The zero location on the board is oriented toward magnetic north.

Triangulation - is a method that can be used when the scene is irregularly shaped. Two control points are used for this method.

Highgrading – selling

Information - The general term refers to the knowledge acquired by criminal investigators from various sources. Data gathered by an investigator from other persons including the victim himself and
other sources.

Classes of Information
a. Regular Sources - records, files from government and non-government agencies, news items.
b. Cultivated Sources - information gathered upon initiative of the investigator from informants, vendors, taxicab driver, GRO, and others.
c. Grapevine Sources - these are information coming from the underworld characters such as prisoners and ex- convicts.

Instrumentation - The application of instruments and methods of physical science in the detection and investigation of crime.

Interview - The simple friendly questioning of people who have the information officially needed by investigators.

Interrogation - The vigorous or aggressive questioning of person suspected of having committed an offense or a person who is reluctant or willing to make a full disclosure of information in his possessions, which is pertinent to the investigation of a criminal case.

Interrogation Technique

Emotional Appeal - Place the subject in the proper frame of mind. The investigator should provide emotional stimuli that will prompt the subject to unburden himself by confiding.

Sympathetic appeal - The suspect may feel the need for sympathy or friendship when he is apparently in trouble.

Shifting the blame - The interrogator makes clear his belief that the subject is obviously not the sort of person who usually gets mixed up in a crime like this.

Mutt and Jeff - Two (2) Agents are employed.
a. Mutt, the relentless investigator
b. Jeff, is obviously a kind-hearted man.

Bluff on a Split Pair - This is applicable when there is more than one suspect. The suspects are separated and one is informed that other has talked.

Investigation - The collection of basic facts establishing that a crime has been committed and that some other person is responsible thereof.

6 Cardinal Points of Investigation

1. WHAT - nature of criminal
2. WHERE - place or location
3. WHEN -time and date
4. WHOM - persons involved
5. WHY - reason or motive of committing crime
6. HOW - manner, method or modus operandi

Criminal Investigation - is an art which deals with the identity and location of the offender and provides evidence of guilt through criminal proceedings.

Investigator - who is tasked with carrying out the objectives of the investigation
a. to identify the guilty party;
b. to locate the guilty party; and
c. to provide evidence of his guilt.

Qualities of A Good Investigator
1. Perseverance
2. Intelligence
3. Honest
4. Understanding of the people and environment
5. Keen power of observation

Kastle–Meyer Test - is a presumptive blood test, first described in 1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect the possible presence of hemoglobin.

Miranda Doctrine - The principle on the rights of a suspect against forced self-incrimination during police interrogation.

Modus Operandi - Methods of Operation, Modes of Operation, Manner of committing the crime.

Murder-Suicide - An act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself.

Phenomena - A circumstance, event, or occurrence as it actually exists or existed.

Photography -  The most reliable means of preserving the crime scene or evidence.

Political terrorists - The use of force or the fear of force to achieve a political end.

Power-Reassurance Rapist - The rapist who psychologically doubts his masculinity and seeks to dispel this doubt by exercising power and control over women.

Professional Robber - This is characterized as having a long-term commitment to crime as a source of livelihood, planning, and organizing crimes before committing them, and pursuing money to support a particular lifestyle.

RA 7438 - An act defining certain rights of a person under custodial investigation.

RA 8353 - The Anti-Rape Law of 1997.

RA 9514 - The Fire Code of the Philippines.

Rectangular - a method of obtaining measurement to locate an object by making a measurement at right angles from each of two walls. Works well for indoor measurements.

Special Crime Investigation - The investigation of cases that are unique and often require special training to fully understand their broad significance.

Spectrometry - modern detection method of alcohol and drugs.

Suspect - A person arrested for a crime.

Terrorism - The unlawful use of threat of violence against person or
property to further political or social objectives.

Three Fold Aim of Criminal Investigation
1. Identify the Perpetrator
2. Locate the Perpetrator
3. Provide Evidence

Triangulation - method of locating object where measurements are taken from two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to locate.