special crime investigation reviewer
Special Crime

Special Crime Investigation Reviewer
Definition of Terms

Definition of Terms

Admission - Any statement of fact made by a party which is against
his interest or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he contends
or inconsistent with the facts alleged by him.

AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric
identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology
to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.

Amateur Intermittent Offender - These types of robbers view themselves
as lifetime robbers and commits infrequent robbery offenses, often

Armed Robbery - This involves the use of weapons such as firearm, a
knife or other dangerous weapons.

Animus Lucrandi - means intent to gain, in Robbery.

      Bienes Muebles - in Robbery, means personal property belonging
      to another.

Arrest - The legal taking of a person into a custody in order that
he may be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.    

Arrest Warrant - An order in writing issued in the name of the
Philippines commanding or directing a peace officer to arrest the
person described therein and brings it before the court.

      The warrant of arrest is to be served within a statutory
      period of 10 days.

      The warrant  of arrest validity continues unless:
      1. Recalled by the issuing court
      2. The respondent has been arrested
      3. Respondent voluntary submitted himself

Arson - An act of willfully and maliciously damaging or destroying a
building or other property by fire or explosion.

Autopsy - known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, autopsia
cadaverum, or obduction, is a highly specialized surgical procedure
that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the
cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that
may be present.

Accused - A person who’s case was forwarded to the office of the
prosecutor and filed in court.

Baseline - a method of locating object, particularly useful in in
large, irregularly shaped outdoor areas.

Confession - An express acknowledgment by the accused in a criminal
prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charged,
while admission refers to statements of fact not directly constituting
an acknowledgment of guilt.

Corpus Delicti - Latin for the “body of the crime”.

Crime - A generic term referring to many types of misconduct
forbidden by law.

Crime Scene - A venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event
has been committed.

Criminal - A person who is convicted by final judgment.

Criminalist - The officer responsible for recording a crime scene and
recognizing and preserving physical evidence.

Criminal Investigation - The collection of facts in order to accomplish
the three-fold aims – to identify the guilty party, to locate the guilty
party and to provide evidence of his (suspect) guilt.

Criminal Investigator - A well-trained, disciplined and experienced
professional in the field of criminal investigation.

Criminal Law - One that defines crimes treats of their nature and
provides for their punishment.

Crime Scene - The geographical area where the crime was committed.

Crime Scene Sketch -  A simple diagram that creates a mental pictures
of the scene to those who are not present.

      Rough Sketch -  The first pencil-drawn outline of the scene
      and the location of objects and evidence within this outline.

DNA Profiling - (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic
fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist
in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.

DNA Fingerprinting - is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic
information, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), of a person's cells.

Early Techniques of Crime Investigation
      Archimedes (287–212 BC) invented a method for determining the
      volume of an object with an irregular shape.

      Book of Xi Yuan Lu - The first written account of using medicine
      and entomology to solve criminal cases.

      Carl Wilhelm Scheele - he devised in 1773 a method for detecting
      arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses.

      Henry Goddard - at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of bullet
      comparison in 1835.

      Alphonse Bertillon - was the first to apply the anthropological
      technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating
      an identification system based on physical measurements.

      Sir William Herschel - was one of the first to advocate the use
      of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects.

English Constable - early recorded professional criminal investigator.

Evidence -  The means by which facts are proved.

Forcible Rape - Sexual intercourse carried out against a person’s will
by the use of physical violence.

Four Basic Techniques That Can Be Used To Measure A Crime Scene
1. Rectangular/Coordinate System
2. Baseline/Station Line
3. Triangulation/Trilateration
4. Azimuth/Polar Coordinates

         Azimuth - uses polar coordinates. This method requires two
         people; one to hold each end of a tape measure. This type of
         measuring convention is best suited for large open areas where
         there might not be any fixed reference points. A known starting
         point must be established in your scene which might require
         pounding in a stake. That point is located by using a handheld
         GPS (global positioning system). A large protractor or some
         other type of board marked with a circle and degree increments
         is used. The zero location on the board is oriented toward
         magnetic north.

         Triangulation - is a method that can be used when the scene
         is irregularly shaped. Two control points are used for this

Highgrading – selling

Information - The general term referring to the knowledge acquired
by criminal investigator from various sources. Data gathered by an
investigator from other persons including the victim himself and
other sources.

Instrumentation - The application of instrument and method of physical
science in the detection and investigation of crime.

Interview - The simple friendly questioning of people who have the
information officially needed by investigators.

Interrogation - The vigorous or aggressive questioning of person
suspected of having committed an offense or a person who is reluctant
or willing to make a full disclosure of information in his possessions,
which is pertinent to the investigation of a criminal case.

Investigation - The collection of basic facts establishing that a crime
has been committed and that some other person is responsible thereof.

Kastle–Meyer Test - is a presumptive blood test, first described in
1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect
the possible presence of hemoglobin.

Miranda Doctrine - The principle on the rights of a suspect against
forced self-incrimination during police interrogation.

Modus Operandi - Methods of Operation, Modes of Operation, Manner of
committing the crime.

Murder-Suicide - An act in which an individual kills one or more other
persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself.

Phenomena - A circumstance, event or occurrence as it actually
exists or existed.

Photography -  The most reliable means of preserving the crime scene
or evidence.

Political terrorists - The use of force or the fear of force to achieve
a political end.

Power-Reassurance Rapist - The rapist who psychologically doubt his
masculinity and seeks to dispel this doubt by exercising power and
control over women.

Professional Robber - This characterized as having a long-term
commitment to crime as a source of livelihood, planning and organizing
crimes before committing them and pursuing money to support a particular

RA 7438 - An act defining certain rights of person under custodial

RA 8353 - The Anti-Rape Law of 1997.

RA 9514 - The Fire Code of the Philippines.

Rectangular - a method of obtaining measurement to locate an object
by making a measurement at right angles from each of two walls. Works
well for indoor measurements.

Special Crime Investigation - The investigation of cases that are
unique and often require special training to fully understand their
broad significance.

Spectrometry - modern detection method of alcohol and drugs.

Suspect - A person arrested for a crime.

Terrorism - The unlawful use of threat of violence against person or
property to further political or social objectives.

Three Fold Aim of Criminal Investigation
1. Identify the Perpetrator
2. Locate the Perpetrator
3. Provide Evidence

Triangulation - method of locating object where measurements are taken
from two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to locate.