industrial security management reviewer

Industrial Security Management Reviewer Definition of Terms and Terminologies)

Syllabi/Table of Specification


The registered criminologist can perform the competencies under the following sub-topics:
1. State and apply the theories, concepts, and philosophy of security and safety;
2. Organize and assess the related laws in security and detective agency operations, management, and administration;
3. Translate and construct the basic industrial security concepts of security survey, security plan, security test and evaluation, personnel check, technical surveillance, and security management.

Access List – an authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing entry to a compound or installation or a part thereof.

Active Security Measures 
1. Physical Barriers
2. Security lighting
3. Vaults
4. Locks

Passive Security Measures
1. Those that will deter men from committing such acts for fear of being caught charged in court or dismissed.
2. Security education programs, investigation, fire prevention seminars, and personal security checks.

Company Guard Force – (CGF) is a security force maintained and operated by any private company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch, secure, or guard its business establishment premises, compound, or properties.

Duty Detail Order - is a written order/schedule issued by a superior officer usually the private security agency/branch manager or operations officer assigning the performance of private security/detective services duties.

Factors that Bring About Unsecured Conditions
1. Threats - an activity that could lead to a loss.
2. Hazards - a condition that could lead to a loss.
3. Vulnerability - a weakness that can be used to gain access to an asset.
4. Risk - a potential loss or damage to an asset.

Government Guard Unit – (GGU) is a security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other than the military or police, which is established and maintained for the purpose of securing the office or compound and/or extension of such government entity.

Government Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include government security guards, detectives, security consultants and security officers except those of the AFP, PNP, or BJMP  rendering or performing security and/or detective services as employed by government entities.

License to Exercise Profession – shall mean any document issued by the Chief, PNP, or his duly authorized representative recognizing a person to be qualified to perform his duties as private security or training personnel.

Kennel Master - refers to a person responsible for the daily care of canines and maintenance of kennel facility.

License to Exercise Security Profession (LESP) - refers to a permit issued by the Chief of the Philippine National Police (PNP) or the duly authorized representative, recognizing a natural person to be qualified to perform the duties as security professional or training personnel.

No applicant shall be granted a license to exercise private security profession unless the applicant possesses the following qualifications:
a. Must be of legal age;
b. Must be a Filipino citizen;
c. Must be physically and mentally fit;
d. Must be of good moral character; and
e. Must not have been convicted of any crime or offense involving moral turpitude. 

For purposes of securing an LESP, a letter of authority to conduct training must be issued by the Supervisory Office for Security and Investigation Agency (SOSIA). Such training includes the pre-licensing requirements of the individual PSPs, periodic and non-periodic in-service skill refreshers for such security personnel, and other specialized, individual or group, PSP skills development: Provided, That the Chief PNP shall provide for additional qualifications for security consultant and security officers based on the industry requirements and practice.

License to Operate – (LTO) is a License Certificate document, issued by the Chief, the Philippine National Police, or his duly authorized representative, authorizing a person to engage in employing a security guard or detective, or a juridical person to establish, engage, direct, manage or operate an individual or a private detective agency or private security agency/company security force after payment of the prescribed dues or fees.

Note: New applicants for a license to operate shall be required to obtain a minimum capitalization of one million pesos (P1,000,000.00) with a minimum bank deposit of five hundred thousand (P500, 000.00) pesos in order to start its business operation.

No regular license shall be granted to any private security agency unless it has a minimum of two hundred (200) licensed private security personnel under its employ.

No regular license shall be granted to any company guard force or private detective agency unless it has a minimum of thirty (30) licensed private security personnel under its employ.

The maximum number of private security personnel that a PSA/CGF/PDA may employ shall be one thousand (1000).

PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators. Is an association of all licensed security agencies and company security forces in the Philippines.

Person - shall include not only natural persons but also juridical persons such as a corporation, partnership, company, or association duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Period of Validity of LTO. - The LTO issued to PSA and PSTA shall be valid for a maximum period of five (5) years, subject to renewal: Provided, That the Chief PNP may set a shorter validity period for LTO with applicable fair and reasonable fees adjusted accordingly.

Physical Barrier -  any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, or illegal access to an installation.

PNP - Philippine National Police, under the DILG, organized pursuant to the provision of RA 6975 otherwise known as the National Police Act of 1991. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over
the operators of all security agencies and guards.

Powers and Duties of a Security Guard
1. To watch and secure the property of the client. Service shall not extend beyond the property or compound of a client.

a. Escort duties
b. Hot pursuit of criminal offenders

2. Security Guard and Private Detectives have no police authority.

Private Detective - is any person who does detective work for hire, reward, or commission, other than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, municipal or city jail guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the government.

Qualifications of a Private Detective
1. Must be a Filipino citizen
2. Must be a high school graduate
3. Must be physically and mentally fit
4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age
5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height
6. Must not be suffering from any of the following: disqualifications

a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP
b. Mental incompetent
c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drugs or drugs
d. Habitual drunkard

7. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude
Private Detective Agency - is any person, who, for hire or reward or on commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself or itself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency, or detective service.

      1. All person used in a private detective work must be licensed
      2. All person employed solely for clerical or manual work need
         no private detective license.
      3. License (LTO) shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous
         and suitable place in the agency office or headquarters of
         the agency and shall be exhibited at the request of any person
         whose jurisdiction is in relation with the business of the
         agency or the employees thereof, or of the Chief of the PNP
         or his duly authorized representative or any peace officer.
      4. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation
         of all private detective and privated detective agency.

         The rules above applies to a Private Security Agency.

Private Security Guard - (watchman) shall include any person who
offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either a
residence, business establishment, or buildings, compounds, areas,
or property, inspects/monitors bodily checks/searches individuals
and/or baggage and other forms of security inspection, physically/
manually or scientifically electronic, including but not limited to,
logging concessions and agricultural, mining or pasture lands,
transportation, for hire or compensation , or as an employee thereof,
including any employee of the national or local governments or
agencies or instrumentality’s thereof and or government owned or
controlled firm or corporations who is employed to watch or secure
government buildings, compounds, premises and other properties, other
than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards of the
Bureau of Jail management and Penology, Municipal or City jail
guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of any other
law enforcement agency of the Government.

Qualifications of a Security Guard
1. Must be a Filipino citizen
2. Must be a high school graduate
3. Must be physically and mentally fit
4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age
5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height (RA 5487)
6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff: disqualifications
      a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP
      b. Mental incompetent
      c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs
      d. Habitual drunkard
7. Must have undergone a pre-licensing training course
8. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude

Moral Turpitude - A phrase used in Criminal Law to describe conduct that is considered contrary to
community standards of justice, honesty, or good morals.

Crimes involving moral turpitude have an inherent quality of baseness, vileness, or depravity with respect to a person's duty to another or to society in general.

Examples of Crime Involving Moral Turpitude
 1. Rape
 2. Forgery
 3. Robbery
 4. Prostitution

Private Security Guard Agency - any person, association,
partnership, or corporation, who recruits, trains, muster, furnishes,
solicits individuals or business firms, private or government-owned
or controlled corporations to engage his service or those of its

      Who May Organize a Security Agency
      1. Any Filipino citizen
      2. Corporation
      3. Partnership
      4. Association

      Limitations/Disqualification/Prohibitions In Organizing A 
      Security Agency
      1. Security Agency must be 100% Filipino owned
      2. No person shall organize or have an interest in, more than
         security agency
      3. No agency shall offer, render or accept services in gambling
         dens or other illegal business establishments or enterprises.
      4. Must not be an elective or appointive government employees
         who may be called upon on account of the functions of their
         respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of
         the Private Security Agency Law and any person related to
         such government employees by affinity or consanguinity in
         the third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly
         or indirectly in any security guard or watchman agency.
      5. The extent of the security guard service being furnished by
         the security agency shall not go beyond the compound and/or
         property of the person or establishment contracting the
         security service except when the security guards is
         escorting big amount of money or valuables.
      6. Main Office - All agencies shall maintain a main office in
         their registered addresses.

               Branch offices - may be established and maintained in
               other provinces/ cities where the security agency has
               deployed security guards.

      7. Rules - Authority to operate outside principal offices.
               1. No new or moribund but previously licensed private
                  security agency shall be granted license to operate
                  unless its business viability is supported by
                  evidence of assured clientele, adequate
                  capitalization and the like.

                  Moribund - (dying)(stagnant)(obsolescent) in
                  terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour.
               2. Private Security Agency operating at regions
                  outside its main office shall be required to
                  register with the nearest Police Provincial Office
                  and shall submit an authenticated machine copy of
                  the following documents:
                     a) License to Operate
                     b) License of the FA’s to be issued
                     c) List of the officers and security guards
                     d) Appointment Order of Branch/Detachment
                        Manager (if any)
      8. All applicants for license to operate shall be required to
         attend a private security agency/company guard force
         operators and management seminar/workshop.
      9. Prohibition on “KABIT SYSTEM” operators
               1. No licensed security agency shall operate, promote
                  and enter into an agreement of “merger“
                  (kabit system) with any person or a group of persons
                  for the purpose of organizing a branch unit or
                  subsidiary under separate control and ownership.
                  Merger of security and detective agencies shall not
                  be recognized without prior approval from the SEC
                  with respect to their Articles of Incorporation and
                  the DTI, with regards their business name.
               2. Any of the following circumstances or a combination
                  thereof shall be considered prima-facie evidence
                  of the existence of “Kabit System”.
                     a) Maintaining a separate branch, unit or
                        subsidiary office aside from the main office
                        of the agency situated within the same locality
                     b) Receiving direct payments from the agency’s
                        clientele and issuing officials receipt of
                        their own distinct from that issued by the
                        agency concerned
                     c) Remitting directly Social Security System
                        premiums, Medicare contributions and other
                        premium for other policy insurance benefits
                     d) Existence of an agreement between the licensee
                        and a branch manager thereof, whereby the
                        latter obligates himself to pay a certain
                        percentage of his income to the former on the
                        condition that the control and supervision of
                        the guards posted by said branch shall course
                        on the manager thereof and that the licensee
                        shall be exempt from liabilities/ obligations
                        attendant to the operation of said branch.
                     e) Keeping/maintaining separate payrolls for the
                        branch employees signed and/or approved by
                        the branch manager only
                     f) Absence of record of monthly income remittances
                        to the main office when said branch is
                        authorized to make collections from the clients
                        of the licensee
                     g) All other similar acts tending to show separate
                        and distinct relationship/personality/
                        ownership/ management.

      Qualifications of the Operator/Manager of a Security Agency
      1. Must be at least 25 years of age
      2. Must be a College Graduate and/or No.3 below.
      3. Must be a commissioned officer in the inactive service of
         the Armed Forces of the Philippines
      4. Must be of good moral character
      5. Must have no previous record of any conviction of any crime
         or offense involving moral turpitude
      6. Must not be suffering from any of the following
               a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the AFP
               b. Mental incompetent
               c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs
               d. Habitual drunkard
      7. Must have taken a course/seminar on industrial Security
         Management and/or must have adequate training or experience
         in security business (IRR)

      Note: One can not be a Commissioned officer in the inactive
      service of the AFP unless college graduate. The law used the
      word and/or.

      RA 5487 is a law. In case of conflict between the law and its
      implementing rules and regulations promulgated by the chief
      PNP, The law shall prevail.
Private Security Industry – shall cover those in the legitimate business of providing private security and detective services.

Private Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which include private security guards, private detectives, security consultants, and security officers rendering/performing security and/or detective
services as employed by private security agencies and/or private firms.

Protective Security System - are those measures taken by an installation or unit to protect itself against sabotage, espionage, or subversion.

PSA Operator or Licensee. - No applicant shall be granted a license to operate a PSA unless the applicant possesses the following qualifications:
a. Must be at least twenty-five (25) years of age;
b. Must hold a bachelor's degree;
c. Must be a part owner of the company or in case of juridical entity, holder of at least one (1) share of stock with voting rights;
d. Must be of good moral character;
e. Must not have been convicted of any crime or offense involving moral turpitude; and
f. Must be physically and mentally fit, and passed the neuro-psychiatric test and drug test administered by the PNP or other similar government centers and facilities:

Provided, That in case of juridical entity, the named operator or licensee shall be its President or any of its directors complying with the above requirements and duly authorized by their Board of Directors.
RA No. 5487 - known as "The Private Security Agency Law."

It is an act that regulates the organization and operation of private detectives, watchmen, or security guard agencies.  It is known as  Private  Security Agency Law. 

Before R.A. 5487 there was no law, what they need is only a permit from the city or municipal mayor to hire a security guard.

RA No.11917 - "The Private Security Services Industry Act".

Restricted Area - is any area in which personnel or vehicles are controlled for reasons of security. A restricted area is established to provide security for installation or facilities and to promote the efficiency of security operations and economy in the use of security personnel.

SAGSD - Security Agency and Guard Supervision Division. SAGSD is under the PNP Civil Security Group.

Security - is the state or quality of being secured, freedom from fear or danger; assurance; certainty. To secure is to make safe or be protected. From the Greek word SECUROS which means safe, safety, or secured.

How to deter potential intruders? Install the following.  

1. Security warning signs -  let workers and visitors in your facility understand the system you have in place. This is especially crucial if there are emergency exit doors that will trigger alarms if they're opened. Security warning signs can also deter trespassing, theft, and other illegal or suspicious activities.  

2. Security fences  -  stating that it is fencing a piece of property to increase security.  

3. Vehicle barriers  -  A barrier meant to stop, disable, or destroy vehicles intentionally driven into the perimeter of a protected area. These barriers may be active (movable at the push of a button) or static (permanently in a vehicle-stopping posture) and be located at gate entrances or along perimeters between vehicle access points.  

4. Vehicle height restriction - are designed specifically to allow access to a site for cars and smaller, lighter vehicles. This bar then pre-warns the vehicles wishing to gain access to the area where their vehicle may be too high.  

5. Restricted access point - it means that you can allow only a number of people who will enter the facility or a building or institution.  

6. Sight lighting and trenches - security lighting is lighting that intended to deter or detect intrusions or other criminal activity on a piece of real property. It can also be used to increase a feeling of safety. Lighting is integral to crime prevention through environmental design. 

Security Consultant - refers to a security professional authorized by law to provide security services such as design and formulation of a security plan, threat and vulnerability assessment, resiliency planning, security surveying, security auditing, risk management, travel security training, event security planning and management, emergency and incident planning and management, crisis management, business continuity and other services related to the formulation of security-related solutions other than providing guards and watchmen.

Security Guard - (watchman) Any person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either residential or business establishment, or both, or any building, compound, or area including but not limited to logging concessions, agricultural, mining or pasture lands for hire or compensation, or as an employee thereof.

Security Hazards - is an act or condition that results in a situation like a breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense information, company secret,s or damage to
personnel, property, or facilities.

Security Inspection - a process where a physical examination is conducted to determine compliance with established security policies and procedures as a result of a security survey.

Security Survey - is the process of conducting an exhaustive physical examination and thorough inspection of all operational systems and procedures of a facility.

Three Major Areas of Security
1. Physical Security - this concern with the physical measures
   adopted to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities,
   material and document and to safeguard them against espionage,
   damage, loss and theft
2. Personnel Security - this is as important as physical security.
   Personnel security starts even before the hiring of an employee
   and remains to be maintained for as long as the person is employed.
   Its purpose is to insure that a firm hires those best suited to
   assist the firm in achieving its goals and objectives and once
   hired assist in providing necessary security to the work force
   while carrying out their functions
3. Document and Information Security - this involves the protection
   of documents as classified papers from loss, access by unauthorized
   persons, damage, theft and compromise through disclosure

Two Instances When the Chief PNP may deputize any security guard to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties.
1. In case of emergency
2. In times of disaster or calamities

Types of Security
1. Industrial Security - a type of security applied to business
   groups engaged in industries like manufacturing, assembling,
   research and development, processing, warehousing and even
   agriculture. It may also mean the business of providing security.
2. Hotel Security- a type of security applied to hotels where its
   properties are protected from pilferage, loss damage and the
   function in the hotel restaurants are not disturbed and troubled
   by outsiders or the guest themselves. This type of security
   employs house detectives, uniforms guard and supervisor and
   insures that hotel guests and their personal effects are safeguarded.
3. Bank Security- this type of security is concern with the bank
4. VIP Security- a type of security applied for the protection of
   top-ranking officials of the government or private entity,
   visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries.
5. School Security- a type of security that is concern with the
   protection of the students, faculty members, and school properties.
6. Supermarket or Mall Security- a type of security which is concern
   with the protection of the stores, warehouses, storage, its
   immediate premises and properties as well as the supermarket
   personnel and customers. Security personnel are trained to detect
   shoplifter, robbery, and bomb detection and customer relation.
7. Other Types- this includes all other security matters not covered
   in the above enumeration.

SOSIA - Supervisory Office for Security and Investigation Agencies.

Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the installation but could include the following:
1. Escort - expensive but most secure. 
2. Time traveled - if there is a long delay or time lapse between the departure and arrival, the visitor may be required to show cause for the delay. 
3. Visitors logs -  should contain identifying data, reasons of visit, time in and hour etc. 
4. Visitors entrances - separate access for visitors and separate for employees.