1. That the woman is married (even if marriage is subsequently
    declared void);
2. That she has sexual intercourse with a man not her husband; and
3. That as regards the man with whom she has sexual intercourse,
    he must know her to be married.

Adultery may be attempted.

Sheer necessity, though woman not abandoned by her husband,
mitigates liability of married woman.

The offended party must be legally married to the offender at
the time of the criminal case.

Carnal knowledge may be proved by circumstantial evidence.

Each sexual intercourse constitutes a crime of adultery.

People vs. Avelino
   Adultery is mitigated if the adulterous wife was abandoned w/o
   justification by the offended spouse. Both the wife and her
   paramour are entitled to this mitigating circumstance.

Even if the husband pardons the adulterous wife, such pardon
would not exempt the wife and her paramour from criminal
liability for adulterous acts committed after the pardon had
been granted, because the pardon refers to previous and not
to subsequent adulterous acts.

A married man who is not liable for adultery, because he did
not know that the woman was married, may be held liable for
concubinage. If the woman knew that the man was married,
she may be held liable for concubinage as well.

Acquittal of one of the defendants does not operate as a
cause of acquittal of the other.

Effect of death of paramour: Offending wife may still
be prosecuted. The requirement that both offenders should
be included in the complaint is absolute only when the two
offenders are alive.

The pardon must come before the institution of criminal

Both the offenders must be pardoned by the offended party.

Act of intercourse subsequent to adulterous conduct is an
implied pardon.

Consent is a cause for dismissal of complaint.

Effect of death of offended party:
   The proceedings may continue.
   Pardon by the offended party to be effective must be
   granted to both offenders before the institution of
   criminal proceedings.

Effect of consent:

People v. Sensano and Ramos
   The husband, knowing that his wife, after serving
   sentence for adultery, resumed living with her
   co-defendant, did nothing to interfere with their
   relations or to assert his rights as husband.
   The second charge of adultery should be dismissed
   because of consent.

Agreement to separate
   may be used as evidence to show consent by the husband
   to the infidelity of his wife

   Under the law, there is no accomplice in adultery.


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