ART. 124

1. That the offender is a public officer or employee (whose official duties
   include the authority to make an arrest and detain persons);
2. That he detains a person; and
3. That it was without legal grounds.


Arbitrary detention is the deprivation by a public officer of the liberty
of a person w/o any legal ground.

Though the elements specify that the offender be a public officer or employee,
private individuals who conspire with public officers can be liable as principals.

Legal grounds for the detention of any person:
   a. commission of a crime
   b. violent insanity or other ailment requiring compulsory confinement of
      the patient in a hospital

Grounds for warrant-less arrest:
   a. Crime is about to be, is being, or has been committed;
   b. Arresting officer must have personal knowledge that the person probably
      committed the crime; or
   c. Person to be arrested is an escaped prisoner.

1. By detaining a person without legal ground
2. Delay in the delivery of detained persons to the proper judicial authorities
3. Delaying release

A public officer is deemed such when he is acting within the bounds of his
official authority or function.
     A police officer who employs force in excess of what is necessary is
     acting outside the bounds of his duties and is considered acting in his
     private capacity.

In a case decided by the Supreme Court a Barangay Chairman who
unlawfully detains another was held to be guilty of the crime of arbitrary
     This is because he is a person in authority vested with jurisdiction
     to maintain peace and order within his barangay (Milo v. Salanga,1987).

There must be an actual restraint of liberty of the offended party.
     The crime committed is only grave or light threat if the offended party
     may still go to the place where he wants to go, even though there
     have been warnings.

If the offender falsely imputes a crime against a person to be able to arrest
him and appear not determined to file a charge against him, the crime is arbitrary
detention through unlawful arrest (Boado, Comprehensive Reviewer in Criminal Law).

Rolito Go v. CA is an example of arbitrary detention (Judge Pimentel)

Ramos v. Enrile:
Rebels later on retire. Once you have committed rebellion and have not
been punished or amnestied, the rebels continue to engage in rebellion,
unless the rebels renounce their affiliation. Arrest can be made
without a warrant because rebellion is a continuing crime.

                     Arbitrary Detention          Illegal Detention               Unlawful Arrest
1. Offender  Public officer who has      Private person or              Any person.
                    authority to make arrest    Public officer who is
                    detain persons.                  acting in a private
                                                              capacity or beyond the
                                                              cope of his official

2. Criminal  Deny the offended           Deny the offended party    Accuse the offended
   Intent       party of his liberty            of his liberty                       party of a crime he
                                                                                                       did not commit, deliver
                                                                                                       him to the proper
                                                                                                       authority and file the
                                                                                                       necessary charges to
                                                                                                      incriminate him.

Related: Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus