1. That the offender is a reporter, editor or manager of a
newspaper, daily or magazine;
2. That he publishes facts connected with the private life of
3. That such facts are offensive to the honor, virtue and
reputation of said person.
The prohibition to publish applies even such publication be
made in connection w/ or under the pretext that it is necessary
in the narration of any judicial or administrative proceedings
wherein such facts have been mentioned.
Art. 357 constitutes the “Gag law” which bars from publication
news reports on cases pertaining to adultery, divorce, issues
about the legitimacy of children, etc.
Source of news report may not be revealed unless court or
Congress finds such revelation is demanded by the security
of the State
This article is referred to as the Gag Law.
Under RA 1477, a newspaper reporter cannot be compelled to
reveal the source of the news report he made, UNLESS –
the court or a House or committee of Congress finds that
such revelation is demanded by the security of the state.
Libel - Defamation is in writing. Print media
Slander - is oral defamation. It can be grave orsimple