The means by which libel may be committed are writing, printing,
lithography, engraving, radio, phonograph, painting, theatrical
or cinematographic exhibitions, or any similar means.
Use of amplifier slander not libel.
Television program libel.
Penalty is in addition to civil liability
Libel may be absorbed in crime of threats if intent to threaten
is principal aim and object.
If defamatory remarks are made in the heat of passion which
culminated in a threat, the derogatory statements will not
constitute an independent crime of libel but a part of the more
serious crime of threats.
In a libel case filed in August 2006 against RP Nuclear
Solutions and blogger Abe Olandres, the Pasig City
Prosecutor dismissed the charges against them because they
have no participation in the creation nor authority to modify
the content of the site being hosted where the allegedly
libelous remarks were posted.2
The prosecutor however ordered the filing of cases against
two other respondents who never denied authorship of the
It remains debatable when the moment of publication occurs with
respect to statements made over the Internet.
One view holds that there is publication once the statement
is uploaded or posted on a website.
The other view maintains that publication occurs only when
another person gains access or reads the statement on the