1. That there is a band of brigands;
2. That the offender knows the band to be of brigands; and
3. That the offender does any of the following acts:
a. he in any manner aids, abets or protects such band of brigands, or
b. he gives them information of the movements of the police or other
peace officers of the Government, or
c. he acquires or receives the property taken by such brigands.
P. D. No. 532 defines brigandage as the seizure of any person for:
(b) extortion or other unlawful purpose; or
(c) the taking away of property by violence or intimidation or
force upon things or other unlawful means, committed by
any person on any Philippine highway.
The Anti-Carnapping Act defines carnapping as the taking, with intent
to gain, of a motor vehicle belonging to another without the latter’s
consent, or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons,
or by using force upon things. This law also penalizes the defacing or
tampering with the original serial number of motor vehicle engines,
engine blocks, and chassis.
It is presumed that the person performing any of the acts provided in
this article has performed them knowingly, unless the contrary is
Any person who aids or protects highway robbers or abets the commission
of highway robbery or brigandage shall be considered as an accomplice.