Penalty For Rebellion, Insurrection Or Coup D' Etat

ART. 135.

WHO ARE LIABLE AND PENALTIES:

REBELLION:
1. Leaders – reclusion perpetua
2. Participants – reclusion temporal
3. Deemed leader – reclusion perpetua

COUP D’ETAT:
1. Leaders – reclusion perpetua
2. Participants (gov’t) – reclusion temporal
3. Participants (not gov’t) – prision mayor
4. Deemed leader – reclusion perpetua

Question: What is a political crime?
Answer: Those directly aimed against the political order; includes common crimes
committed to achieve a political purpose. Decisive factor: Intent.

Not a defense: The accused did not take the oath of allegiance to, or that they
never recognized the government.

If under the command of unknown  leaders, any person who spoke for,
signed receipts and other documents issued in their name on behalf of the
rebels shall be deemed a leader.

Mere silence or omission is not punishable.

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