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rules of evidence
Rules of Evidence



RULES OF EVIDENCE








RULE 128
General Provisions
      Section 1. Evidence defined
      Section 2. Scope
      Section 3. Admissibility of Evidence
      Section 4. Relevancy; Collateral matters


RULE 129
What Need Not Be Proved
      Section 1. Judicial Notice, When Mandatory
      Section 2. Judicial Notice, When Discretionary
      Section 3. Judicial Notice, When Hearing Necessary
      Section 4. Judicial Admissions


RULE 130
Rules On Admissibility
      Section 1.   Object as Evidence
      Section 2.   Documentary evidence
      Section 3.   Original Document Must Be Produced; Exceptions
      Section 4.   Original of document
      Section 5.   When original document is unavailable
      Section 6.   When original document is in adverse party's custody
                         or control
      Section 7.   Evidence admissible when original document is a
                         public record
      Section 8.   Party who calls for document not bound to offer it
      Section 9.   Evidence of written agreements
      Section 10. Interpretation of a writing according to its
                         legal meaning
      Section 11. Instrument construed so as to give effect to all
                         provisions
      Section 12. Interpretation according to intention
                         general and particular provisions
      Section 13. Interpretation according to circumstances
      Section 14. Peculiar signification of terms
      Section 15. Written words control printed
      Section 16. Experts and interpreters to be used in explaining
                        certain writings
      Section 17. Of Two constructions, which preferred
      Section 18. Construction in favor of natural right
      Section 19. Interpretation according to usage
      Section 20. Witnesses; their qualifications
      Section 21. Disqualification by reason of mental incapacity or
                         immaturity
      Section 22. Disqualification by reason of marriage
      Section 23. Disqualification by reason of death or insanity
                         of adverse party
      Section 24. Disqualification by reason of privileged
                         communication
      Section 25. Parental and filial privilege
      Section 26. Admission of a party
      Section 27. Offer of compromise not admissible
      Section 28. Admission by third party
      Section 29. Admission by co-partner or agent
      Section 30. Admission by conspirator
      Section 31. Admission by privies
      Section 32. Admission by silence
      Section 33. Confession
      Section 34. Similar acts as evidence
      Section 35. Unaccepted offer
      Section 36. Testimony generally confined to personal knowledge;
                         hearsay excluded
      Section 37. Dying declaration
      Section 38. Declaration against interest
      Section 39. Act or declaration about pedigree
      Section 40. Family reputation or tradition regarding pedigree
      Section 41. Common reputation
      Section 42. Part of res gestae
      Section 43. Entries in the course of business
      Section 44. Entries in official records
      Section 45. Commercial lists and the like
      Section 46. Learned treatises
      Section 47. Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding
      Section 48. General rule
      Section 49. Opinion of expert witness
      Section 50. Opinion of ordinary witnesses
      Section 51. Character evidence not generally admissible; exceptions:


RULE 131
Burden of Proof and Presumptions
      Section 1. Burden of proof
      Section 2. Conclusive presumptions
      Section 3. Disputable presumptions
      Section 4. No presumption of legitimacy or illegitimacy


RULE 132
Presentation of Evidence
      Section 1.   Examination to be done in open court
      Section 2.   Proceedings to be recorded
      Section 3.   Rights and obligations of a witness
      Section 4.   Order in the examination of an individual witness
      Section 5.   Direct examination
      Section 6.   Cross-examination; its purpose and extent
      Section 7.   Re-direct examination; its purpose and extent
      Section 8.   Re-cross-examination
      Section 9.   Recalling witness
      Section 10. Leading and misleading questions
      Section 11. Impeachment of adverse party's witness
      Section 12. Party may not impeach his own witness
      Section 13. How witness impeached by evidence of inconsistent
                        statements
      Section 14. Evidence of good character of witness
      Section 15. Exclusion and separation of witnesses
      Section 16. When witness may refer to memorandum
      Section 17. When part of transaction, writing or record given
                         in evidence, the remainder, the remainder admissible
      Section 18. Right to respect writing shown to witness
      Section 19. Classes of Documents
      Section 20. Proof of private document
      Section 21. When evidence of authenticity of private document
                        not necessary
      Section 22. How genuineness of handwriting proved
      Section 23. Public documents as evidence
      Section 24. Proof of official record
      Section 25. What attestation of copy must state
      Section 26. Irremovability of public record
      Section 27. Public record of a private document
      Section 28. Proof of lack of record
      Section 29. How judicial record impeached
      Section 30. Proof of notarial documents
      Section 31. Alteration in document, how to explain
      Section 32. Seal
      Section 33. Documentary evidence in an unofficial language
      Section 34. Offer of evidence
      Section 35. When to make offer
      Section 36. Objection
      Section 37. When repetition of objection unnecessary
      Section 38. Ruling
      Section 39. Striking out answer
      Section 40. Tender of excluded evidence


RULE 133
Weight and Sufficiency of Evidence
      Section 1. Preponderance of evidence, how determined
      Section 2. Proof beyond reasonable doubt
      Section 3. Extrajudicial confession, not sufficient ground
                      for conviction
      Section 4. Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient
      Section 5. Substantial evidence
      Section 6. Power of the court to stop further evidence
      Section 7. Evidence on motion


RULE 134 
Perpetuation of Testimony
      Section 1. Petition
      Section 2. Contents of petition
      Section 3. Notice and service
      Section 4. Order of examination
      Section 5. Reference to court
      Section 6. Use of deposition
      Section 7. Depositions pending appeal


INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION
   - The means, sanctioned by these rules, of ascertaining in a
     judicial proceeding, the truth respecting a matter of fact.
     [Rule 128, Sec. 1]

   - The mode and manner of proving competent facts in judicial
     proceedings. [Bustos v. Lucero]

SCOPE
   - General Rule: Rules of evidence shall be the same in all
     courts and in all trials and hearings

     Exception: If otherwise provided by:
     1) law;
     2) ROC.

CLASSIFICATION
Rules Of Court CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM
1) OBJECT – Directly addressed to the senses of the court
           [Rule 130, Sec. 1]

            Referred to as real evidence or evidence by
            “autoptic preference”.

2) DOCUMENTARY - Consist of writing or any material containing
                 modes of written expression (i.e. words,
                 numbers, figures, symbols) offered as proof
                 of their contents. [Rule 130, Sec. 2]

3) TESTIMONIAL - Submitted to the court through the testimony
                 or deposition of a witness.

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS [Regalado]
1) DIRECT – Proves the fact in dispute without aid of any
            inference or presumption.

            CIRCUMSTANTIAL – Proof of fact/s from which, taken
            singly/collectively, the existence of the particular
            fact in dispute may be inferred as a necessary/
            probable consequence. It is evidence of relevant
            collateral facts.

2) CUMULATIVE – Evidence of the same kind and to the same state
                of facts.

                CORROBORATIVE – Additional evidence of a different
                character to the same point.

3) PRIMA FACIE – That which, standing alone, is sufficient to
                 maintain the proposition affirmed.

                 CONCLUSIVE – That class of evidence which
                 the law does not allow to be contradicted.

4) PRIMARY – (Best evidence) The law regards these as affording
             the greatest certainty of the fact in question.

             SECONDARY – (Substitutionary evidence) Permitted by
             law only when the best evidence is unavailable.

5) POSITIVE – When a witness affirms that a fact did or did not
              occur (there is personal knowledge).

              NEGATIVE – When witness states that he did not
              see or know of the occurrence of a fact (total
              disclaimer of personal knowledge).

EVIDENCE COMPARED TO PROOF
   - It is the result or effect of evidence; when the requisite
     quantum of evidence of a particular fact has been duly
     admitted and given weight, the result is called the proof
     of such fact.

TO FACTUM PROBANDUM
   - The ultimate fact or the fact sought to be established. It
     refers to the proposition (e.g. victim was stabbed).

TO FACTUM PROBANS
   - The evidentiary fact or the fact by which the factum
     probandum is to be established; refers to the materials
     that establish the proposition (e.g. bloody knife).






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