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4 Kinds of Aggravating Circumstances

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Name the four (4) kinds of aggravating circumstances and state their effect on the penalty of crimes and nature thereof.

The four (4) kinds of aggravating circumstances are:

1. Generic Aggravating or those that can generally apply to all crimes, and can be offset by mitigating circumstances, but if not offset, would affect only the maximum of the penalty prescribed by law;

2. Specific Aggravating or those that apply only to particular crimes and cannot be offset by mitigating circumstances;

3. Qualifying Circumstances or those that change the nature of the crime to a graver one, or brings about a penalty next higher in degree, and cannot be offset by mitigating circumstances.

4. Inherent Aggravating or those that essentially accompany the commission of the crime and does not affect the penalty whatsoever.


2000 Bar Exam Question (Aggravating;Must be alleged in the information)

Rico, a member of the Alpha Rho Fraternity, was killed by Pocholo, a member of the rival group, Sigma Phi Omega. Pocholo was prosecuted for homicide before the Regional Trial Court in Binan, Laguna. During the trial, the prosecution was able to prove that the killing was committed by means of poison in consideration of a promise or reward and with cruelty.

If you were the judge, with what crime will you convict Pocholo? Explain.

Pocholo should should be convicted of the crime of homicide only because the aggravating circumstances which should qualify the crime to murder were not alleged in the information.

The circumstances of using poison, in consideration of a promise or reward, and cruelty which attended the killing of Rico could only be appreciated as generic aggravating circumstances since none of them have been alleged in the information to qualify the killing to murder. A qualifying circumstance must be alleged in the information and proven beyond reasonable doubt during the trial to be appreciated as such.

PNP New Rank Classification To be Used Effective Immediately

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PNP has released the implementing rules and regulations with regard to the new rank classification and abbreviation to be used effective immediately. (maan macapagal)

PNP, inilabas na ang tamang abbreviation sa bagong rank classification ng mga pulis. (@DZMMTeleRadyo)

Modification of Rank Classification in the PNP

Present Nomenclature               New Nomenclature                   Abbreviation

Police Director General - (Police General - PGEN)
Police Deputy Director General - (Police Lieutenant General - PLTGEN)
Police Director - (Police Major General - PMGEN)
Police Chief Superintendent - (Police Brigadier General - PBGEN)
Police Senior Superintendent - (Police Colonel - PCOL)
Police Superintendent - (Police Lieutenant Colonel - PLTCOL)
Police Chief Inspector - (Police Major - PMAJ)
Police Senior Inspector - (Police Captain - PCPT)
Police Inspector - (Police Lieutenant - PLT)
Senior Police Officer IV - (Police Executive Master Sergeant - PEMS)
Senior Police Officer III - (Police Chief Master Sergeant - PCMS)
Senior Police Officer II - (Police Senior Master Sergeant - PSMS)
Senior Police Officer I - (Police Master Sergeant - PMSG)
Police Officer III - (Police Staff Sergeant - PSSG)
Police Officer II - (Police Corporal - PCpl)
Police Officer I - (Patrolman/Patrolwoman - Pat)


Remember that the modification of PNP Rank Classification is pursuant to RA. No. 11200 signed into law by President Duterte on February 8, 2019.

Generic Aggravating Circumstances vs. Qualifying Aggravating Circumstances

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Distinguish generic aggravating circumstances from qualifying aggravating circumstances.

Generic Aggravating Circumstances
a. affects only the imposition of the penalty prescribed but not the nature of the crime committed;
b. can be offset by ordinary mitigating circumstances;
c. need not be alleged in the information as long as proven during the trial, same shall be considered in imposing the sentence.

Qualifying Aggravating Circumstances
a. must be alleged in the information and proven during trial;
b. cannot be offset by mitigating circumstances;
c. affects the nature of the crime or brings about a penalty higher in degree than that ordinarily prescribed.

Related:

Aggravating Circumstances
Mitigating Circumstances

When is surrender by an accused considered voluntary?

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When is surrender by an accused considered voluntary, and constitutive of the mitigating circumstance of voluntary surrender?

A surrender by an offender is considered voluntary when it is spontaneous, indicative of an intent to submit unconditionally to the authorities.

To be mitigating, the surrender must be:
(a) spontaneous, i.e., indicative of acknowledgment of guilt and not for convenience nor conditional;
(b) made before the government incur expenses, time, and effort in tracking down the offender's whereabouts; and
(c) made to a person in authority or the latter's agents.


Related:

Mitigating Circumstances
Aggravating Circumstances
Justifying Circumstances
Alternative Circumstances

March 2019 Pharmacist Licensure Examination Results

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The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) announces that 2,100 out of 3,234 passed the Pharmacist Licensure Examination given by the Board of Pharmacy in the cities of Manila, Baguio, Cagayan De Oro, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo, Tuguegarao and Zamboanga this March 2019.

The members of the Board of Pharmacy who gave the licensure examination are Dr. Mildred B. Oliveros, Officer-In-Charge; Ms. Adelina C. Royo and Mr. Anthony Aldrin C. Santiago, Members.

The results were released in three (3) working days after the last day of examination.

From March 18 to March 22, 2019, registration for the issuance of Professional Identification Card (ID) and Certificate of Registration will be done on-line. Please go to www.prc.gov.ph and follow instructions for initial registration. Those who will register are required to bring the following: downloaded duly accomplished Oath Form or Panunumpa ng Propesyonal, notice of admission (for identification only), 2 pieces passport sized pictures (colored with white background and complete name tag), 2 sets of documentary stamps and 1 piece short brown envelope.

Successful examinees should personally register and sign in the Roster of Registered Professionals.
The date and venue for the oath taking ceremony of the new successful examinees in the said examination WILL BE ANNOUNCED LATER.


Related:

List of Successful Examinees
Top Ten Examinees
Top Performing Pharmacist Schools

March 2019 Pharmacist Licensure Examination Top Performing Schools

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The top performing schools in the March 2019 Pharmacist Licensure Examination as per
Commission Resolution No. 2017-1058(C) series of 2017:

A. WITH 50 OR MORE EXAMINEES AND WITH AT LEAST 80% PASSING PERCENTAGE

No.1 University of the Philippines - Manila
         Total Number of Examinees - 53
         Total Number Passed - 53
         Percentage Passed - 100%

No.2 Saint Louis University
         Total Number of Examinees - 72
         Total Number Passed - 70
         Percentage Passed - 97.22%

No.3 Mariano Marcos State University - Batac
         Total Number of Examinees - 70
         Total Number Passed - 67
         Percentage Passed - 95.71%

No.4 Saint Paul University - Tuguegarao
         Total Number of Examinees - 55
         Total Number Passed - 52
         Percentage Passed - 94.55%

No.5 University of San Agustin
         Total Number of Examinees - 135
         Total Number Passed - 123
         Percentage Passed - 91.11%

No.6 Our Lady of Fatima University - Antipolo City
         Total Number of Examinees - 63
         Total Number Passed - 53
         Percentage Passed - 84.13%

No.7 Liceo De Cagayan University
         Total Number of Examinees - 80
         Total Number Passed - 65
         Percentage Passed - 81.25%


WITH 15 TO 49 EXAMINEES AND WITH 100% PASSING PERCENTAGE

No.1 De La Salle Med. & Health Sciences Inst.(for.DLSU-Dasma HSC)
         Total Number of Examinees - 33
         Total Number Passed - 33
         Percentage Passed - 100%

No.2 Lyceum of the Philippines University - Batangas, Inc.
         Total Number of Examinees - 15
         Total Number Passed - 15
         Percentage Passed - 100%


Related:

List of Successful Examinees
Top Ten Examinees

March 2019 Pharmacist Licensure Examination Top 10

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The successful examinees who garnered the ten (10) highest places in the March 2019
Pharmacist Licensure Examination are the following:

1st Placer - JULIENNE NICOLE CHUA DELA CRUZ
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 92.70

2nd Placer - KHLARICA RYGINE AQUINO FURIGAY
                    TRINITY UNIVERSITY OF ASIA (TRINITY-QC) - 92.00

3rd Placer - JONAS ANGELES AQUINO
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.80

4th Placer - PAULINE ROSE NAVALES FLOR
                    UNIVERSITY OF SAN AGUSTIN - 91.60

5th Placer - PATRICIA MAY GERONIMO ARELLANO
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.50

                    SARAH MAY LAGUADOR OBMAÑA
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.50

6th Placer - ALISON MARY ALBESA DOCENA
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.40

7th Placer - LANCE GERIK SO CHAN
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.32

8th Placer - ALEXANDRA KAY TENGCO CO
                    UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS - 91.20

9th Placer - KARL IAN HERNANDEZ MALIWAT
                    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES-MANILA - 91.17

10th Placer - ABRAHAM JUAN RESUELLO
                     LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIV-DAGUPAN CITY - 91.10


Related:

March 2019 Pharmacist Licensure Examination List of Successful Examinees
Top Performing Pharmacy Schools